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College of Forestry and Conservation

General Publications

Allendorf, F.W. and C. Servheen. 1986. Genetics and the conservation of grizzly bears. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 1:88-89.

Aune, K. and W.F. Kasworm. 1989. East Front grizzly bear study. Montana Deptartment of Fish, Wildlife, & Parks, Helena. 332 pp.

Boyce, M. S., B. F. Blanchard, R. R. Knight, and C. Servheen. 2001. Population viability for grizzly bears: A critical review. International Conference on Bear Research and Mangement Monograph No. 4. 39 pp.

Boyce, M., E. Kirsch, and C. Servheen. 2002. Bet-hedging applications for conservation. Journal of Bioscience 4:385-392.

Clark, J., D. Huber, and C. Servheen. 2002. Bear reintroductions: lessons and challenges. Ursus 13:335-345.

Costello, C., S. Cain, R.M. Nielson, C. Servheen, and C. Schwartz. 2011. Impacts of a multi-use pathway on American black bears in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Report to the National Park Service. 35 pp.

Costello, C., S. Cain, R. Nielson, C. Servheen, and C. Schwartz. 2013. Response of American black bears to the non-motorized expansion of a road corridor in Grand Teton National Park. Ursus 24:54-69.

English, W. and C. Servheen. 1977. A rehabilitation program for Bald and Golden Eagles. The Journal of the North American Falconers Association 16:25-27.

Graves, T. A., S. Farley, M. Goldstein, and C. Servheen. 2007. Identification of functional corridors with movement characteristics of brown bears on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Landscape Ecology 22:765-772.

Graves, T. A., S. Farley, and C. Servheen. 2006. Frequency and distribution of highway crossings by Kenai Peninsula brown bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:800-808.

Hilderbrand, G.V., S.D. Farley, C.T. Robbins, T.A. Hanley, K. Titus, and C. Servheen. 1996. Use of stable isotopes to determine the diets of living and extinct bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:2080-2088.

Hilderbrand, G., C. Schwartz, C. Robbins, M. Jacoby, T. Hanley, S. Arthur, and C. Servheen. 1999. The importance of meat, particularly salmon, to body size, population productivity, and conservation of North American brown bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:132-138.

Holden, Z. A., Kasworm, W. F., Servheen, C., Hahn, B. and Dobrowski, S. 2012. Sensitivity of berry productivity to climatic variation in the Cabinet–Yaak grizzly bear recovery zone, Northwest United States, 1989–2010. Wildlife Society Bulletin 36:226–231.

Ihsle Pac, H., W.F. Kasworm, L.R. Irby, and R.J. Mackie. 1988. Ecology of the mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, along the East Front of the Rocky Mountains, Montana. Canadian Field-Naturalist 102:227-236.

Jacoby, M., G. Hilderbrand, C. Servheen, C. Schwartz, S. Arthur, T. Hanley, C. Robbins, and R. Michener. 1999. Trophic relations of brown and black bears in several western North American ecosystems. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:921-929.

Jein, Gong. (in progress) Relationships between bear-related crop damage and bear density, natural foods, nearby human disturbance, and physical characteristics of croplands in several areas of Sichuan, China. M.S. Thesis. Wildlife Biology, University of Montana.

Jonkel, C. and C. Servheen. 1978. Bears and people, a wilderness management challenge. Western Wildlands 5:25-28.

Kasworm, W.F. 1981. Distribution and population characteristics of mule deer along the East Front, Northcentral Montana. M.S. Thesis, Mont. State Univ., Bozeman. 73 pp.

Kasworm, W.F. 1987. Black or grizzly? Montana Outdoors. Vol. 18, No. 3, pp 8-10.

Kasworm, W.F. 1989. Telling the difference. Wyoming Wildlife. Vol. 53, No. 8, pp 28-33.

Kasworm, W.F., H. Carriles, and T.G. Radandt. 2002. Cabinet-Yaak grizzly bear recovery area 2001 research and monitoring progress report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Missoula, Mont. 53pp.

Kasworm, W., H. Carriles, T. Radandt and C. Servheen. 2006. Cabinet-Yaak Grizzly Bear Recovery Area 2005 Research and Monitoring Progress Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Missoula, Mont. 73pp.

Kasworm, W.F., H.B. Ihsle, and L.R. Irby. 1984. Diets of ungulates using winter ranges in northcentral Montana. Journal of Range Management 37:67-71.

Kasworm, W.F. and T.L. Manley. 1988. Grizzly bear and black bear ecology in the Cabinet Mountains of Northwest Montana. Mont. Dept. Fish, Wildlife, Parks, Helena. 122 pp.

Kasworm, W.F. and T.L. Manley. 1990. Road and Trail Influences on Grizzly Bears and Black Bears in Northwestern Montana. International Conference of Bear Research and Management 8:79-84.

Kasworm, W., M. Proctor, C. Servheen and D. Paetkau. 2007. Success of grizzly bear population augmentation on Northwest Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 71:1261-1266.

Kasworm, W. F. and T. J. Thier. 1994. Adult black bear reproduction, survival, and mortality sources in northwest Montana. International Conference of Bear Research and Management 9:223-230.

Kasworm, W., T. Their, and C. Servheen. 1998. Grizzly bear recovery efforts in the Cabinet/Yaak ecosystem. Ursus 10: 147-153.

Keating, Kimberly A., Irby, Lynn R., Kasworm, Wayne F. 1985. Mountain sheep winter food habits in the upper Yellowstone Valley. Journal of Wildlife Management. 49(1): 156-161.

Kemp, E., A. Wilson, and C. Servheen. 1999. Bears in the wild. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). Gland, Switzerland. 44 pp.

Kessler, W.B., W.F. Kasworm, and W.L. Bodie. 1981. Three methods compared for analysis of pronghorn diets. Journal of Wildlife Management 45:612-619.

Knick, S.T. and W. Kasworm. 1989. Shooting mortality in small populations of grizzly bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:11-15.

Lyons, A., W. Gaines, and C. Servheen. 2003. Black bear resource selection in the Northeast Cascades, Washington. Biological Conservation 113:5-62.

Mace, R., K. Aune, W. Kasworm, R. Klaver, and J. Claar. 1987. Incidence of human conflicts by research grizzly bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 15:170-173.

Mace, R. D., Carney, D. W., Chilton-Radandt, T., Courville, S. A., Haroldson, M. A., Harris, R. B., Jonkel, J., Mclellan, B., Madel, M., Manley, T. L., Schwartz, C. C., Servheen, C., Stenhouse, G., Waller, J. S. and Wenum, E. 2012. Grizzly bear population vital rates and trend in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem, Montana. The Journal of Wildlife Management 76:119–128.  

Maguire, L. and C. Servheen. 1992. Integrating biological and sociological concerns in endangered species management: augmentation of grizzly bear populations. Conservation Biology 6:426-434.

McCoy, Karin. Effects of Transportation and Development On Black Bear Movement, Mortality, and Use of the Highway 93 Corridor in NW Montana. M.S. Thesis. Wildlife Biology, University of Montana. 132 pp.

McLellan, M. and C. Servheen. 2013. Flathead, B.C. Wolverine Study summary report: 2009-2012. 12 pp.

McLellan, B.N., F.W. Hovey, R.D. Mace, J.G. Woods, D.W. Carney, M.L. Gibeau, W.L. Wakkinen, and W. F. Kasworm. 1999. Rates and causes of grizzly bear mortality in the interior mountains of British Columbia, Alberta, Montana, Washington, and Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:911-920.

Mills, J. and C. Servheen. 1991. The Asian Trade in Bears and Bear Parts. World Wildlife Fund. Washington, D.C. 113 pp.

Mills, J. and C. Servheen. 1994. The Asian trade in bear parts: impacts and conservation recommendations. in Bears - Their Biology and Management. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Bear Research and Management. February 1992, Missoula MT.

Poux, X, I. Dubien, and C. Servheen. 1996. Etat des Lieux de la Population Ursine et de son Habitat dans le Haut Bearn - Strategies de Conservation et de Renforcement Eventuel. Report to the Institution Patrimoniale du Haut Berne. 189 pp. + 52 pp. of appendices.

Proctor, M. F., Paetkau, D., Mclellan, B. N., Stenhouse, G. B., Kendall, K. C., Mace, R. D., Kasworm, W. F., Servheen, C., Lausen, C. L., Gibeau, M. L., Wakkinen, W. L., Haroldson, M. A., Mowat, G., Apps, C. D., Ciarniello, L. M., Barclay, R. M. R., Boyce, M. S., Schwartz, C. C. and Strobeck, C. 2012. Population fragmentation and inter-ecosystem movements of grizzly bears in western Canada and the northern United States. Wildlife Monographs, 180: 1–46. 

Proctor, M. F., C. Servheen, S. D. Miller, W. F. Kasworm, and W. L. Wakkinen. 2004. A comparative analysis of management options for grizzly bear conservation in the US-Canada trans-border area. Ursus 15:145-160.

Roy, J., C. Servheen, W. Kasworm, and J. Waller. 2001. Restoration of grizzly bears to the Bitterroot wilderness: the EIS approach. Pages 205-224 in D.S. Maehr, R.F. Noss and J.L. Larkin, eds. Large mammal restoration: Ecological and sociological challenges in the 21st century, Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Schwartz, C., J. Fortin, M. Haroldson, C. Servheen, C.T. Robbins, and F. Van Manen. In press. Body and diet composition of sympatric black and grizzly bears in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Journal of Wildlife Management.

Schwartz, C.C., M. A. Haroldson, G. C. White, R. B. Harris, S. Cherry, K. A. Keating, D. Moody, and C. Servheen. 2006. Temporal, spatial, and environmental influences on the demographics of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Wildlife Monographs 161. 68pp.

Schwartz, C.C., K.A. Keating, H.V. Reynolds, V.G. Barnes, R.A. Sellers, J.E. Swenson, S.D. Miller, B. N. McLellan, J. Keay, R. McCann, M. Gibeau, W. L. Wakkinen, R. D. Mace, W.F. Kasworm, R. Smith and S. Herrero. 2003. Reproductive maturation and senescence in the female brown bear. Ursus 14:109-119.

Servheen, C. 1975. Ecology of the Wintering Bald Eagles on the Skagit River, Washington. Unpublished. M.S. thesis, University of Washington. 96pp.

Servheen, C. 1976. Bald Eagles soaring into opaque clouds. Auk. 93:387-388.

Servheen, C. 1976. Deck feather molt in Bald and Golden Eagles in relation to feather mounting of radio transmitters. Raptor Research 10:58-61.

Servheen, C. 1978. Mountain beaver as a prey species of the Golden Eagle. Murrelet 52:59-77.

Servheen, C. 1978. The grizzly bear in the Rattlesnake Mountains. In Border Grizzly Project Annual Rpt. No. 3, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula. pp. 3-15.

Servheen, C. 1981. The grizzly bear recovery plan - a summary. Western Wildlands 8:12-15.

Servheen, C. 1981. Grizzly bear ecology and management in the Mission Mountains, Montana. Unpubl. Ph.D. Dissertation University of Montana, Missoula. 139 pp.

Servheen, C. 1983. Grizzly bear movements, food habits, and habitat use in the Mission Mountains, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 47:1026-1035.

Servheen, C. 1984. The status of the grizzly bear and the interagency recovery effort. Proceedings of the annual conference of Western Assocociation of Fish and Game Commissioners, Victoria, British Columbia. 8 pp.

Servheen, C. 1985. Biological requirements of a wilderness species. Proceedings of the Natural Wilderness Conference Colorado State University. July 23-26, 1985. 3 pp.

Servheen, C. 1985. Notes on wintering Merlins, (Falco columbarius) in western Montana. Raptor Research 19:97-100.

Servheen, C. 1985. The involvement of captive populations in the recovery of the threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the lower 48. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums. Columbus, OH. pp. 499-5-6.

Servheen, C. 1985. The status of the grizzly bear - progress toward recovery. pp. 400-415 in The National Audubon Society Wildlife Report, 1985.

Servheen, C. 1986. Habitat research needs for grizzly bear recovery. In Proceedings of the Grizzly Bear Habitat Conference. USFS, Missoula, MT. pp 14-19.

Servheen, C. 1989. Monitoring of bear populations. Environmental Encounters Series, Council of Europe, 6:39-45.

Servheen, C. 1989. Grizzly bear management on private lands: some problems and possible solutions. pp. 195-200 in Bear-people Conflicts - Proceedings of a Symposium on Management Strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada.

Servheen, C. 1990. Status and conservation of the bears of the world. International Conference on Bear Research and Management Monograph No. 2. 34 pp.

Servheen, C. 1990. Suggestions sur le gestion et le recherche necessaires pour assurer le maintien de l'existance de l'ours brun en France. Bull. Mens. Office National de la Chasse 142:38-43.

Servheen, C. 1993. Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, USDI Washington, D.C. 181 pp.

Servheen, C. 1993. The future of bears in the wild. Bears - Majestic Creatures of the Wild. I. Stirling, ed. Rodale press. Emmaus, Pennsylvania. pp. 212-221.

Servheen, C. 1993. The sun bear. Bears - Majestic Creatures of the Wild. I. Stirling, ed. Rodale Press. Emmaus, Pennsylvania. pp.124-127.

Servheen, C. 1994. Ecosystem management in the Yellowstone Ecosystem: The grizzly bear as a lead species. In U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. Ecosystem Management: Status and Potential. Proceedings and summary of a symposium by the Congressional Research Service. March 24-25, 1994. 103rd Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, D.C. G.P.O.

Servheen, C. 1994. Population and habitat research needs for bear conservation. in Proceedings on the conservation needs for the Asiatic black bear. in Proceedings of the Third East Asiatic Bear Conference, Aug. 4-8, 1994, Beijing, China. Servheen, C. 1995. Bear farms and the impact on bear populations. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Trade of Bear Parts for Medicinal Purposes. Sept. 9-11, 1994, Seattle, Wash. TRAFFIC-USA/WWF-USA.

Servheen, C. 1995. The impacts of the bear trade on global bear populations. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Trade of Bear Parts for Medicinal Purposes. Sept. 9-11, 1994, Seattle, Wash. TRAFFIC-USA/WWF-USA.

Servheen, C. 1996. Organization of international conservation programs. Proceedings of the conference on the status and conservation of the alpine lynx. December 8-10, 1995, Engelberg, Switzerland. Council of Europe Press.

Servheen, C. 1998. Conservation of small bear populations through strategic planning. Ursus 10: 67-73.

Servheen, C. 1998. The grizzly bear recovery program: current status and future considerations. Ursus 10: 591-596.

Servheen, C. 2001. Status of the bears of the world with emphasis on Asia. Pp. 4-10 in Williamson, D. and M. Phipps, (eds.) Proc. Of the Third International Symposium on the trade in bear parts. 26-28 October 1999, Seoul, Republic of Korea. TRAFFIC East Asia, Hong Kong.

Servheen, C. 2001. Summary of the symposium and closing remarks. Pp. 179-184. in Williamson, D. and M. Phipps, (eds.) Proc. Of the Third International Symposium on the trade in bear parts. 26-28 October 1999, Seoul, Republic of Korea. TRAFFIC East Asia, Hong Kong.

Servheen, C. and S. Beebe. 1976. A management plan for the Skagit River Bald Eagle Sanctuary. The Nature Conservancy. 67 pp.

Servheen, C. and W. English. 1977. Bald Eagle rehabilitation techniques in western Washington. Raptor Research 10:84-88.

Servheen, C. and W. English. 1979. Movements of rehabilitated eagles and proposed movement patterns of Bald Eagles in the Pacific Northwest. Raptor Research 13:79-88.

Servheen, C., S. Herrero, and B. Peyton (eds.) 1999. Status Survey of the bears of the World and Global Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 309 pp.

Servheen, C., W. Kasworm, and A. Christensen. 1987. Approaches to augmenting grizzly bear populations in the Cabinet Mountains of Montana. International Conference on Bear Research and Management. 7:363-367.

Servheen, C., W. Kasworm and T. Thier. 1995. Transplanting Grizzly Bears ursus arctos horribilis As a Management Tool - Results from the Cabinet Mountains, Montana, USA. Biological Conservation 7:261-268.

Servheen, C. and R. Klaver. 1983. Grizzly bear dens and denning activity in the Mission and Rattlesnake Mountains, Montana. International Conference on Bear Research and Management. 5:201-207.

Servheen, C. and R. Knight. 1993. Possible effects of a restored gray wolf population on grizzly bears in the greater Yellowstone area. pp. 28-38 in R.S. Cook, ed., Ecological Issues on Reintroducing Wolves into Yellowstone National Park. Sci. Monogr. NPS/NRYELL/NRSM/-93-22. USDI National Park Service.

Servheen, C. and L.C. Lee. 1979. An assessment of the grizzly bear population size and status, and a description of important grizzly use sites in the Finley Creek Logging Unit, Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana. Rpt. to BIA Contract No. C50-6-1420-4988. School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula. 64 pp.

Servheen, C. and L.C. Lee. 1979. Mission Mountains grizzly studies, an interim report. 1976-1978. School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula. 299 pp.

Servheen, C. and P. Sandstrom. 1993. Ecosystem management and linkage zones for grizzly bears and other large carnivores in the northern Rocky Mountains of Idaho and Montana. Endangered Species Technical Bulletin 18:10-14.

Servheen, C., R. Shoemaker, and L. Lawrence. 2003. Wildlife Use in Relation to Structure Variables for a Sampling of Bridges and Culverts Under I-90 between Alberton and St. Regis, Montana. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, 2003. Lake Placid, NY. pp. 331-341.

Servheen, C., T.T. Thier, C.J. Jonkel, and D. Beaty. 1981. An ear-mounted transmitter for bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 9:56-57.

Servheen, C., J. Waller, and W. Kasworm. 1998. Fragmentation effects of high-speed highways on grizzly bear populations shared between the United States and Canada. Proceedings of the International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation, Tallahassee, Florida. pp. 97-103.

Servheen, C., J. Waller, and P. Sandstrom. 2003. Identification and management of linkage zones for grizzly bears between the large blocks of public land in the Northern Rocky Mountains. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Montana, Missoula. 87 pp.

Servheen, C. and T. Wojciechowski. 1978. Grizzly bear foods list. In Border Grizzly Project Annual Rpt. No. 3, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula. pp. 83-107.

Stetz, Jeffery. 2008. Using noninvasive genetic sampling to access and monitor grizzly bear populations status in the northern continental divide ecosystem, Montana. M.S. Thesis. Wildlife Biology, The University of Montana. 101 pp.

Stetz, J., K. Kendall, and C. Servheen. 2010. Evaluation of bear rub surveys to monitor grizzly bear population trends. Journal of Wildlife Management. 74:860-870.

Swensen. J.E., W.F. Kasworm, S.T. Stewart, C.A. Simmons, and K. Aune. 1987. Interpopulation applicability of equations to predict live weight in black bears. International Conference on Bear Research and Management. 7:359-362.

Thier, T. J. and W. F. Kasworm. 1992. Recovery of a Grizzly Bear From a Serious Gunshot Wound. The Montana Game Warden. 4(1):24-25.

Von der Ohe, C. and C. Servheen. 2002. Assessing stress in mammals using fecal glucocordicoids: approaches and challenges. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:1215-1225.

Von der Ohe, C., S. Wasser, K. Hunt, and C. Servheen. 2004. Factors associated with fecal glucocorticoids in Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77:313-320.

Wakkinen, W. L. and W. F. Kasworm. 2004. Demographics and population trends of grizzly bears in the Cabinet-Yaak and Selkirk ecosystems of British Columbia, Idaho, Montana, and Washington. Ursus 15(1):65-75.

Wakkinen, W.L. and W.F. Kasworm. 1997. Grizzly bear and road density relationships in the Selkirk and Cabinet-Yaak recovery zones. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Missoula, Mont. 28pp.

Waller, J. 2005. Movements and Habitat-Use of Grizzly Bears Along U.S. Highway 2 in Northwestern Montana 1998-2001. Ph.D. dissertation, Wildlife Biology, University of Montana. 163 pp.

Waller, J., and C. Servheen. 1999. Documenting grizzly bear highway crossing patterns using GPS technology. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Wildlife Ecology and Transportation, Missoula, MT. pp. 21-24.

Waller J. S. and C. Servheen. 2005. Effects of transportation infrastructure on grizzly bears in Northwestern Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:985-1000.

Waller, J. S., C. Servheen, and D. A. Patterson. 2005. A probabilistic measure of road lethality. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, San Diego, CA. pp. 503-508.

Wong, S. T., and C. Servheen. 2000. The Ecology of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) In Lowland Tropical Forest of Borneo. Proceedings of Sabah Inter-agency Research Tropical Ecosystem Seminar Series.

Wong, S. T. and C. Servheen. 2002. Food habits of the Malayan sun bear in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo. Ursus 13:127-136.

Wong, S.T., C. Servheen, and L. Ambu. 2004. Home range, movement and and activity patterns, and bedding sites of Malayan sun bears Helarctos malayanus in the rainforest of Borneo. Biological Conservation 119:169-181.

Wong, S.T., C Servheen, and L. Ambu. 2005. The effects of famine on Malayan sun bears and bearded pigs in lowland tropical forest of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Journal of Tropical Ecology 21:627-639.