Accessible Navigation. Go to: Navigation Main Content Footer
Find us on facebook Watch the College of Forestry and Conservation's You Tube channel View the College of Forestry and Conservation's photos on Flickr


In Review, Revision, & Press

  1. Brodie, J., Giordano, A., Dickson, B.G., Hebblewhite, M., Bernard, H., Mohd-Azlan, J., Anderson, J., and Ambu, L. 2014. Evaluating multispecies landscape connectivity in a threatened tropical community. Conservation Biology, In Review.
  2. Whittington, J., K. Heuer, B. Hunt, M. Hebblewhite, and Lukacs, P. 2013. Multi-species occupancy using spatially and temporally replicated snow surveys. Animal Conservation In Review.
  3. Birkigt, D., C. A. D. Semeniuk, M. Hebblewhite, M. Musiani, S. Grindal, and D. J. Marceau. 2013. A cellular automata for scenario planning of upstream development in support of wildlife management. Environmental Modelling and Software In Review.
  4. Robinson, H., R. DeSimone, C. Hartway, J. A. Gude, M. Thompson, M. S. Mitchell, and M. Hebblewhite. 2013. A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in mountain lions: a management experiment in west-central Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management, In Revision.
  5. Robinson, H., Ruth, T.K., Gude, J., Choate, D., DeSimone, R., Hebblewhite, M., Kunkel, K., Matchett, R., and Murphy, K. 2014. Linking Resource Selection and Mortality Modeling for Population Estimation of Mountain Lions in Montana. Journal of Wildlife ManagementIn Revision.
  6. Peters, W., Hebblewhite, M., Smith, K. G., Webb, S. M., Webb, N. & Anderson, R. 2013 Moose Population Estimation Using Distance Sampling in West-Central Alberta. Wildlife Society Bulletin,In Revision.
  7. Goldberg, J.F., Hebblewhite, M., Bardsley, J. 2013. Consequences of a Refuge for the Predator-Prey Dynamics of a Wolf-Elk system in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. PLoS One, In Revision.
  8. Ralmer, J., Kellenberg, D., Hebblewhite, M., Sime, C. 2013. Crying wolf: a spatial analysis of wolf locations and depredations on calf weight. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, In Press.
  9. Hurley, M., Hebblewhite, M., Gaillard, J.M., Dray, S., Taylor, K., Smith, B., Zager, P., and Bonenfant, C. 2014. Functional analysis of NDVI curves reveals overwinter mule deer survival is driven by both spring and fall phenology, not just spring. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, In Press.
  10. Semeniuk, C.A.D., Musiani, M., Birkigt, D., Hebblewhite, M., Grindal, S., and Marceau, D.J. 2013. Identifying non-independent anthropogenic risks using a behavioral individual-based model. Ecological Complexity, In Press.


  1. Ripple, W.J., Estes, J.A., Beschta, R.L., Wilmers, C.C., Ritchie, E.G., Hebblewhite, M., Berger, J., Elmhagen, B., Letnik, M., Nelson, M.P., Schmitz, O.J., Smith, D.W., Wallach, A.D., and Wirsing, A.J. 2014. Status and Ecological effects of the world's largest carnivores. Science 343: 123148. doi:DOI: 10.1126/science.1241484.
  2. Ahrestani, F.S., Hebblewhite, M., and Post, E.S. 2013. The importance of observation versus process error in analyses of global ungulate populations. Scientific Reports, 3: 03125, 3, doi:10.1038/srep03125.
  3. Hervieux, D., M. Hebblewhite, N. J. DeCesare, S. Boutin, M. Russell, and S. Robertson. 2013. Widespread and drastic declines in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus cairbou) continue unabated in Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 91: 872–882. (open access)
  4. DeCesare, N. J., M. Hebblewhite, M. Bradley, D. Hervieux, and M. Musiani. 2013. Linking habitat selection and predation risk to spatial variation in fitness. Journal of Animal Ecology Online early (open access). 
  5. Weckworth, B. V., M. Musiani, N. J. DeCesare, A. McDevitt, M. Hebblewhite, and S. Mariani. 2013. Preferred habitat and effective population size drive the landscape genetics of an endangered ungulate. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 280, 20131756
  6. Post, E. S., E. Bhatt, C. Bitz, J. Brodie, T. L. Fulton, M. Hebblewhite, J. Kerby, S. Kutz, I. Stirling, and D. A. Walker. 2013. Sea ice as a driver of ecological responses to climate change in the Arctic. Science 341 no. 6145 pp. 519-524
  7. Polfus, J. L., K. Heinemeyer, M. Hebblewhite, and Taku River Tlingit First Nation. 2013. Comparing Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Western Science Woodland Caribou Habitat ModelsJournal of Wildlife Management
  8. Hebblewhite, M. 2013. Consequences of ratio-dependent wolf predation on elk population dynamics.Population EcologyPublished Online Early.
  9. Latham, A., Latham, M., Knopff, K., Hebblewhite, M., Boutin, S. 2013. Wolves, white-tailed deer, and beaver: implications of seasonal prey switching for woodland caribou declines.Ecography, In Press
  10. Muhly, T.B., Hebblewhite, M., Paton, D., Pitt, J.A., Boyce, M.S., Musiani, M. 2013. Pervasive human influences in a terrestrial food web put to rest the top-down versus bottom-up debate.PLoS One, 8:e64311.
  11. Miller, C. S., M. Hebblewhite, Y. Petrunenko, I. V. Seryodkin, N. J. DeCesare, J. M. Goodrich, and D. G. Miquelle. 2013. Estimating Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) kill rates and consumption rates using GPS collars. Journal of Mammalogy 94:000-000.
  12. Brodie, J., H. E. Johnson, M. S. Mitchell, P. Zager, K. M. Proffitt, M. Hebblewhite, M. Kauffman, B. Johnson, J. Bissonette, C. Bishop, J. A. Gude, J. Herbert, K. Hersey, M. Hurley, P. Lukacs, S. McCorquodale, E. McIntire, J. Nowak, D. W. Smith, and P. J. White. 2013. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North AmericaJournal of Applied Ecology, In Press.
  13. Tempa, T., M. Hebblewhite, L. S. Mills, N. Norbu, T. Wangchuk, T. Wangchuk, T. Nidup, P. Dendup, D. Wangchuk, Y. Wangdi, and T. Dorji. 2013. Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan, as a wild felid biodiversity hot spot. Oryx, In press.
  14. Johnson, H. E., M. Hebblewhite, T. R. Stephenson, D. W. German, and B. M. Pierce. 2013. Apparent competition limits the recovery of an endangered ungulate: quantifying the direct and indirect effects of predation. Oecologia 171:295–307.
  15. Greene, L., M. Hebblewhite, and T. R. Stephenson. 2012. Short-term vegetation response to wildfire in the eastern Sierra Nevada: implications for recovering an endangered ungulate. Journal of Arid Environments, 87: 118 – 128
  16. Peters, W., Hebblewhite, M., DeCesare, N.J., Cagnacci, F., Musiani, M., 2012. Human landscape alteration affects resource partitioning of coexisting moose and threatened caribou. Ecography , 35: 001-012.
  17. Cleveland, S. M., M. Hebblewhite, M. Thompson, and R. Henderson. 2012. Linking elk movement and resource selection to hunting pressure in heterogeneous landscapes.Wildlife Society Bulletin, 36:658–668.
  18. Squires, J. R., N. J. DeCesare, L. E. Olson, J. A. Kolbe, M. Hebblewhite, and S. Parks. 2012. Combining resource selection and movement behavior to predict corridors for Canada lynx at their southern range periphery.Biological Conservation, 157: 187 - 195.
  19. Squires, J.R., DeCesare, N.J., Hebblewhite, M., Berger, J. 2012. Missing Lynx and Trophic Cascades in Food Webs: a Reply to Ripple et al.Wildlife Society Bulletin,36: 567 – 571.
  20. Semeniuk, C. A. D., M. Musiani, M. Hebblewhite, S. Grindal, and D. J. Marceau. 2012. Incorporating behavioral-ecological strategies in pattern-oriented modeling of caribou habitat use in a highly industrialized landscape. Ecological Modeling 243: 18 – 32.
  21. Hebblewhite, M., F. Zimmermann, Z. Li, D. G. Miquelle, Z. Minghai, S. Haiyi, F. Morschel, W. Zhigang, S. Lianxi, A. Purekhovsky, and Z. Chunquan. 2012. A Future for Amur Tigers in Northeastern China? Predicting Potential Tiger Habitat and Numbers in the Changbaishan Ecosystem. Animal Conservation, 15 :579–592.
  22. Weckworth, B. V., M. Musiani, A. McDevitt, M. Hebblewhite, and S. Mariani. 2012. Reconstruction of caribou evolutionary history in Western North America and its implications for conservation. Molecular Ecology 21: 3610-3624.
  23. Kohl, M., S. M. Cleveland, M. Hebblewhite, and R. C. Callaway. 2012. Forage Value of Invasive Species to the Diet of Rocky Mountain Elk. Rangelands 34: 24-28.
  24. DeCesare, N. J., M. Hebblewhite, F. Schmiegelow, D. Hervieux, G. J. McDermid, L. Neufeld, M. Bradley, J. Whittington, K. G. Smith, L. E. Morgantini, M. Wheatley, and M. Musiani. 2012. Transcending scale dependence in identifying habitat with resource selection functions. Ecological Applications 22: 1068-1083.
  25. Nelson, B., Hebblewhite, M., Ezenwa, V., Shury, T., Merrill, E. H., Paquet, P. C., Schmiegelow, F., Seip, D., Skinner, G. & Webb, N. 2012. Seroprevalence of canine parvovirus and distemper in wolves in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 48: 68-78.
  26. Mitchell, M. S. and Hebblewhite, M. 2012. Carnivore habitat ecology: integrating theory and application for conservation. Pages 218 - 255 in R. A. Powell and L. Boitani, editors. Carnivore Ecology and Conservation: A Handbook of Techniques. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  27. Boutin, S., M. S. Boyce, M. Hebblewhite, D. Hervieux, K. H. Knopff, M. C. Latham, D. M. Latham, J. Nagy, D. Seip, and R. Serrouya. 2012. Why are caribou declining in the oil sands? Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 10:65-67.
  28. Miller, C. S., Petrunenko, Y. K., Goodrich, J. M., Hebblewhite, M., Seryodkin, I. V. & Miquelle, D. G. 2011 Translocation a success, but poaching remains a problem for Amur tigers. Cat News, 55: 23-26.
  29. Robinson, H. S., Hebblewhite, M., DeCesare, N. J., Whittington, J., Neufeld, L., Bradley, M. & Musiani, M. 2012. The effect of fire on spatial separation between wolves and caribou. Rangifer: 20: 277–294.
  30. DeCesare, N.J., Hebblewhite, M., Bradley, M., Smith, K., Hervieux, D. & Neufeld, L. 2012. Estimating ungulate recruitment and growth rates using age ratios. Journal of Wildlife Management 76: 144-153.
  31. Rogala, J. K., M.Hebblewhite, J. Whittington, C. A. White, J. Coleshill, and M. Musiani. 2011. Human Activity Differentially Redistributes Large Mammals in the Canadian Rockies National Parks.Ecology and Society, 16(3): 16.
  32. Hebblewhite,M. & Merrill, E. H. 2011. Fitness balancing in a partially migratory ungulate through risk-forage trade-offs. Oikos, 120(12): 1860 - 1870.
  33. Polfus, J.L., Hebblewhite, M., Heinemeyer, K. 2011. Identifying indirect habitat loss and avoidance of human infrastructure by northern mountain caribou. Biological Conservation, 144:2637-2646. Supplementary materials.
  34. Hebblewhite, M. 2011. Unreliable Knowledge about Economic Impacts of Large Carnivores on Bovine Calves. Journal of Wildlife Management, In Press, June, 2011.
  35. Whittington, J., Hebblewhite, M., DeCesare, N. J., Neufeld, L., Bradley, M., Wilmshurst, J. W. & Musiani, M. 2011. Caribou encounters with wolves increases near roads and trails: a time-to-event approach. Journal of Applied Ecology, In Press, July 19, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02043.x.
  36. Hebblewhite, M., Miquelle, D. G., Aramilev, V. V. & Pikonov, D. G. 2011. Recovering the critically endangered Far Eastern Amur Leopard: identifying potential habitat and population size for reintroduction. Biological Conservation,144:2403-2413. Supplementary materials
  37. Hurley, M., Hebblewhite, M. Unsworth, J., Zager, P., Garton, E., Montgomery, D., Skalski, J. and C. Maycock. 2011. Mule deer demographic response of mule deer to experimental reduction of coyotes and mountain lions in southeastern Idaho. Wildlife Monographs, 178: 1 -33.
  38. Vucetich, J. A., Hebblewhite, M., Smith, D. W. & Peterson, R. O. 2011. Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate and predator-prey ratios in three wolf-ungulate systems. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80: 1236 - 1245. Supplementary materials
  39. Griffin, K., Hebblewhite, M., Zager, P., Robinson, H. R., Barber-Meyer, S., Christenson, D., Creel, S., Harris, N., Hurley, M., Jackson, D., Johnson, B., Mech, L. D., Myers, W. L., Raithel, J., Schlegel, M., Smith, B. & White, P. J. 2011. Neonatal mortality of elk driven by climate, predator phenology and predator diversity. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80: 1246 - 1257. Supplementary materials.
  40. DeCesare, N.J., Whittington, J., Robinson, H., Hebblewhite, M., Bradley, M., Neufeld, L. & Musiani, M. 2011. The role of translocation in recovery of woodland caribou populations. Conservation Biology, 25: 365 - 373.
  41. Miller, C. S., Hebblewhite, M., Goodrich, J. M. & Miquelle, D. G. 2010 Review of research methodologies for tigers - Telemetry. Integrative Zoology, 5: 378 - 389.
  42. Hebblewhite, M. 2011. Effects of Energy Development on Ungulates in Western North America. Pages 71-94 in D. Naugle, editor. Energy Development & Wildlife Conservation in Western North America. Island Press, New York.
  43. Matthiopoulos, J., Hebblewhite, M., Aarts, G. & Fieberg, J. 2010. Generalised functional responses for species distributions. Ecology, 92: 583 - 589. Supplementary materials.
  44. Hebblewhite, M., Musiani, M. & Mills, L. S. 2010 Restoration of genetic connectivity among Northern Rockies wolf populations. Molecular Ecology,19: 4383-4385.
  45. Musiani, M., Anwar, M. S., McDermid, G., Hebblewhite, M. & Marceau, D. J. 2010 How humans shape wolf behavior in Banff and Kootenay National Parks, Canada. Ecological Modeling 221: 2374 – 2387.
  46. Muhly, T. B., Alexander, M., Boyce, M.S., Creasey, R., Hebblewhite, M., Paton, M., Pitt, J. and M. Musiani. 2010. Differential risk effects of wolves on elk and cattle: implications for conservation. Oikos 119, 1243-1254.
  47. Gaillard, J. M., Hebblewhite, M., Loison,A., Fuller, F., and R. Powell. 2010. Habitat-performance relationships: finding the right metric at a given spatial scale. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences365: 2255-2265.
  48. Beyer H.L., Haydon D.T., Morales J.M., Frair J.L., Hebblewhite M., Mitchell M.S. & Matthiopoulos J. 2010. Habitat preference: understanding use versus availability designs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 365: 2245-2254.
  49. Merrill, E. H., Sand, H., Zimmerman, B., McPhee, H., Hebblewhite, M., Webb, N., Wabakkan, P. & Frair, J. L. 2010. Opportunities and challenges for using predator movements to assess kill sites and attack rates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 365:2279-2288 .
  50. Frair, J. L., Fieberg, J., Cagnacci, F., Hebblewhite, M., Pedrotti, L. & DeCesare, N. 2010. Plentiful but problematic: resolving issues of error in analyses using GPS collar data. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences In Press.
  51. Fieberg, J., Matthiopoulos, J., Hebblewhite, M., Boyce, M. S. & Frair, J. L. 2010. Autocorrelation and studies of habitat selection: problem, red herring, or opportunity? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 365: 2233-2244. .
  52. Hebblewhite, M. & Haydon, D. T. 2010. Distinguishing technology from ecology: a critical review of the use and abuse of GPS collar data in ecology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences,365: 2303-2312.
  53. Robinson, B. G., M. Hebblewhite, and E. Merrill. 2010. Are migrant and resident elk (Cervus elaphus) exposed to similar forage and predation risk on their sympatric winter range? Oecologia 164: 265-275.
  54. DeCesare, N.J., Hebblewhite, M., Robinson, H., Musiani, M. 2010. Endangered, apparently: the role of apparent competition in endangered species management. Animal Conservation, 13: 353-362.
  55. Hebblewhite, M., White, C.A., & Musiani. M. 2009. Revisiting extinction in National Parks: Mountain caribou in Banff. Conservation Biology,24: 341-344.
  56. Hebblewhite, M., & Merrill, E.H. 2009. Trade-offs between wolf predation risk and forage at multiple spatial scales in a partially migratory ungulate. Ecology,90(12): 3445-3454.
  57. Hebblewhite, M. 2009. Linking wildlife populations with ecosystem change: state of the art satellite ecology for national park science. Park Science, 26(1): 54-59
  58. Eggeman, S., Hebblewhite, M., Cunningham, J., & Hamlin, K. 2009. Fluctuating asymmetry in elk antlers is unrelated to environmental conditions in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Wildlife Biology 15: 299-309.
  59. Post, E., Brodie, J., Wilmers, C.C., Hebblewhite, M., & Anders, A.D. 2009. Global population dynamics and hotpots of climate change. Bioscience, 59: 489-499.
  60. McDevitt, A., Mariani, S.L., Hebblewhite, M., DeCesare, N.J., L., Seip, D., Weckworth, B. V. & Musiani, M. 2009. Survival in the Rockies of an endangered hybrid swarm from diverged caribou (Rangifer tarandus) lineages. Molecular Ecology, 18: 665-679.
  61. Hebblewhite, M., Munro, R. & Merrill, E. H. 2009. Trophic consequences of post-fire logging in a wolf-elk system. Forest Ecology and Management, 257, 1053-1062.
  62. Hebblewhite, M., Merrill, E. H. & McDermid, G. 2008. A mutli-scale test of the forage maturation hypothesis for a partially migratory montane elk population. Ecological Monographs, 78: 141-166.
  63. Webb, N., Hebblewhite, M., Merrill, E.H. 2008. Identifying wolf kill sites using global positioning systems. Journal of Wildlife Management, 72: 798- 807.
  64. Hebblewhite, M., & Merrill, E.H. 2008. Modelling wildlife-human relationships for social species with mixed-effects resource selection models. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45: 834-844. Supplementary materials.
  65. Hebblewhite, M., Whittington, J., Bradley, M., Skinner, G., Dibb, A. & White, C. A. 2007. Conditions for caribou persistence in the wolf-elk-caribou systems of the Canadian Rockies. Rangifer, 17, 79-91.
  66. Hebblewhite, M. 2007. Predator-prey management in the National park context: lessons from a transboundary wolf-elk, moose, and caribou system. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference, 72, 348-365.
  67. Hebblewhite, M., Percy, M. & Merrill, E. H. 2007. Are all GPS collars created equal? Correcting habitat-induced bias using three brands in the Central Canadian Rockies. Journal of Wildlife Management, 71: 2026-2033.
  68. Hebblewhite, M. & Merrill, E. H. 2007. Multiscale wolf predation risk for elk: does migration reduce risk? Oecologia, 152, 377-387.
  69. Hurford, A., Hebblewhite, M., & Lewis, M.A. 2006. A spatially explicit model for the Allee effect: why wolves recolonize so slowly in Greater Yellowstone. Theoretical Population Biology. 70: 244-254
  70. Gillies, C.S., Hebblewhite, M., Nielsen, S.E., Krawchuk, M.A., Aldridge, C.L., Frair, J.L., Saher, D.J., Stevens, & C.E., Jerde. 2006. Application of random effects to the study of resource selection by animals. Journal of Animal Ecology. 75: 887-898.
  71. Hebblewhite, M., Merrill, E. H., Morgantini, L. E., White, C. A., Allen, J. R., Bruns, E., Thurston, L. & Hurd, T. E. 2006. Is the migratory behavior of montane elk herds in peril? The case of Alberta’s Ya Ha Tinda elk herd. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34: 1280-1295
  72. Hebblewhite, M., Merril, E.H., & McDonald, T.E. 2005. Spatial decomposition of predation risk using resource selection functions: an example in a wolf-elk predator-prey system. Oikos, 111:101-111.
  73. Hebblewhite, M., White, C. A., Nietvelt, C., McKenzie, J. M., Hurd, T. E., Fryxell, J. M., Bayley, S. & Paquet, P. C. 2005 Human activity mediates a trophic cascade caused by wolves. Ecology, 86: 2135-2144.
  74. Hebblewhite, M. 2005. Predation by wolves interacts with the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) on a western North American elk population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 74: 226-233.
  75. Hebblewhite, M., Paquet, P.C., Pletscher, D.H., Lessard, R.J. & Callaghan, C. 2004. Development and application of a ratio-estimator to estimate wolf-killing rates and variance in a multi-prey ecosystem. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 31:933-945.
  76. Hebblewhite, M., Percy, M., & Serrouya, R. 2003. Black bear survival and demography in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park. Biological Conservation, 112: 415-425.
  77. Hebblewhite, M., Pletscher, D.H., & P.C. Paquet. 2003. Elk population dynamics following wolf recolonization of the Bow Valley of Banff National Park. Parks Canada Research Links 11: 10-12.
  78. Hebblewhite, M., & Pletscher, D.H. 2002. Effects of elk herding on predation by wolves: linking anti-predator behavior to population dynamics. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80: 800-809.
  79. Hebblewhite, M., Pletscher, D.H., & P.C. Paquet. 2002. Factors affecting elk population growth rate in areas with and without predation by recolonizing wolves in Banff National Park. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:789-799.
  80. Duke, D., Hebblewhite, M., Paquet, P.C., & Callaghan, C. 2001. Restoration of a large carnivore corridor in Banff National Park, Alberta. In
  81. Large mammal restoration: ecological and sociological challenges in the 21st Century, Edited by Maehr, D.S., Noss, R.F., & Larkin, J.L., Island Press.