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AUTHOR:

IZEFRI CANIAGO AND STEPHEN F. SIEBERT

TITLE:

MEDICINAL PLANT ECOLOGY, KNOWLEDGE AND CONSERVATION IN KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA(FN1)

SOURCE:

Economic Botany 52 no3 229-50 Jl/S '98

The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited.

ABSTRACT
This study documents the abundance, distribution and knowledge of medicinal plant species in a Ransa Dayak village and adjoining forest in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over 250 medicinal plant species from 165 genera and 75 families are utilized by the local healer. Late successional, primary and river bench forests contained the highest diversity of locally-utilized medicinal species and the greatest number of species restricted to a single forest type for which alternative species or remedies were unavailable. Epiphytes and trees restricted to primary forests are particularly important sources for plants used to treat unusual ailments. A 100% survey of village residents 15 years of age and older (N = 32) revealed that people older than 25 years of age, and older females in particular, possessed greater knowledge of medicinal plants and their uses than younger people and males. All residents, except the male healer, were more knowledgeable about medicinal plants found in early successional forests than those of primary forests. Commercial logging and the loss of traditional knowledge through acculturation pose twin challenges to the persistence of traditional medicinal plant use in this Ransa village and throughout much of Kalimantan.

Penelitian ini mengumpulkan informasi mengenai keberadaan, penyebaran dan pengetahuan tentang jenis tumbuhan obat di daerah perkampungan Daya' Ransa dengan hutan sekitarnya di Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. Lebih dari 250 spesies tumbuhan obat dari 165 genus dan 75 suku digunakan oleh dukun setempat. Hutan sekunder tua, hutan primer dan daerah hutan sepanjang pinggir sungai merupakan tipe hutan yang memiliki keanekaragaman dan jenis tumbuhan obat paling tinggi yang hanya tumbuh di tipe hutan tersebut serta tidak adanya jenis tumbuhan obat pengganti untuk mengobati penyakit yang sama di tipe hutan lain. Jenis epipit dan pohon yang ditemukan khusus di hutan primer mempunyai arti sangat penting bagi masyarakat karena digunakan untuk menogobati jenis penyakit yang tidak biasa. Dari survey 100% yang dilakukan terhadap penghuni desa yang usianya lebih dari 15 tahun (N = 32) diketahui bahwa penduduk yang berusia lebih dari 25 tahun, terutama perempuan berusia tua, mempunyai pengetahuan yang lebih banyak mengenai pemanfaatan tumbuhan obat dibandingkan dengan laki-laki dan perempuan yang lebih muda. Seluruh penduduk, kecuali sang dukun, lebih mengetahui pemanfaatan tumbuhan obat yang tumbuh di hutan sekunder muda dibandingkan dengan tumbuhan obat yang tumbuh di hutan primer. Kegiatan pembalakan hutan berskala besar (HPH) dan hilangnya pengetahuan tradisional lewat perubahan budaya adalah dua tantangan yang dihadapi untuk dapat mempertahankan pemakaian dan melestarikan tumbuhan obat di kampung ini khususnya dan di seluruh Kalimantan umumnya.


    Key Words: medicinal plants; abundance and distribution; secondary forest; primary forest; Ransa Dayak; acculturation; Indonesia.


    Many rural people throughout the tropics rely on medicinal plants because of their effectiveness, a lack of modern medical alternatives, and cultural preference (Balick, Elisabetsky and Laird 1996; Plotkin and Famolare 1992). On a global basis, approximately 80% of the world's population is believed to rely, to some extent, on medicinal plants (Farnsworth 1988), yet fewer than 10% of the world's approximately 250 000 flowering plant species have been examined for pharmaceutical properties (Stix 1993). Moreover, little is known about the abundance and distribution of medicinal plants or the effect of timber harvesting on medicinal plant populations.
    Indigenous forest-dwelling peoples tend to be particularly dependent upon medicinal plants and often possess exceptional medicinal plant knowledge (Comerford 1996; Johnston and Colquhoun 1996; Milliken and Albert 1996). However, exposure to modern culture, increased trade, and access to modern conveniences (including modern medicines) are altering the distribution and extent of local knowledge and use of medicinal plants in these societies (Leach 1994; Plotkin 1988; Rocheleau 1995).
    The availability of medicinal plants is also reduced by forest conversion and land degradation. For example, millions of hectares of forests in Kalimantan, Indonesian have been converted to secondary forests, agricultural fields and grasslands through intensive timber harvesting and shifting cultivation by recent immigrants and indigenous inhabitants. Furthermore, most remaining forests are under contract to timber concessionaires and are scheduled to be logged within the next decade (Primack and Lovejoy 1995). Timber harvesting generally results in a simplification of forest structure and damage to the residual stand. In Sabah, Malaysia, for example, Nussbaum, Anderson and Spencer (1995) found that 30% of the total ground surface was impacted by logging roads and skid trails, and that fully 80% of the forest was disturbed in felling operations. Logging also alters soil and hydrologic regimes; raises ground and interior forest illumination levels; increases the intensity and variability of diurnal temperature and humidity conditions; and results in soil compaction, reduced water infiltration, and reduced plant growth (Bruijnzeel 1991; Nussbaum, Anderson and Spencer 1995).
    Following disturbance (whether natural tree fall, logging or shifting cultivation), secondary vegetation usually quickly reestablishes. While secondary rain forest succession varies, early secondary forests frequently differ from late successional and primary forests in that they are less diverse and relatively simple in terms of forest structure (Whitmore 1984). Secondary forests developed following shifting cultivation differ from those succeeding logging in that they are usually more uniform in size and age, are dominated by one or a few species, and contain residual crop and herbaceous weeds (Richards 1996).
    Timber harvesting and forest clearing may alter the abundance and distribution of medicinal plants. In fact, entire life forms may disappear given severe disturbance. For example, the growth and reproduction of epiphytes (an important group of medicinal plants) can be adversely affected by slight micro-climatic changes and the loss of specific bark conditions found only on certain mature canopy trees (Whitmore 1984).
    Rapid social change and acculturation can also affect local knowledge of and interest in medicinal plant use. Forest-dwelling inhabitants of Kalimantan, such as the Dayak, now compete with commercial logging for agricultural land and forest resources. Consequently, these societies are now exposed to radically different values and economic opportunities (Denslow and Padoch 1988; Padoch and Peluso 1996).
    This study explores the implications of commercial logging and acculturation on the availability and knowledge of medicinal plant species in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, a region experiencing extensive timber harvesting and rapid social change. Specifically, we describe medicinal plant species and their uses in a Ransa Dayak village, the abundance and distribution of medicinal plants in eight locally-recognized forest types, and the extent of medicinal plant knowledge and use among local people by age and gender.

RESEARCH SITE AND METHODS

RESEARCH SITE
    This study was conducted in the Dayak village and adjoining forests of Nanga Juoi, West Kalimantan, Indonesia (11215'E and 029'S). Nanga Juoi is located near the Bukit Baka/Bukit Raya National Park and a large forest concession operated by PT Kurnia Kuala Kapuas (PTKKK). Vegetation in the area ranges from lowland dipterocarp to montane forests and contains a rich assemblage of the region's flora and fauna (Nooteboom 1987), including an estimated 2000-4000 vascular plant species (Davis 1995).
    Nanga Juoi (population 16 households; 32 adults) is inhabited by a Dayak sub-group known as the Ransa who report living in the area for generations. Many villagers observe traditional practices, including extensive use of medicinal plants. In recent years, large-scale timber harvesting involving forest clearing and construction of logging roads, and the establishment of a national park (and subsequent prohibition against traditional forest farming and collecting activities) has altered both the physical environment and traditional village life (Belsky 1992). In 1994, the timber concessionaire constructed roads connecting the village and primary forest and began widespread logging.

RESEARCH METHODS
    We utilized a variety of research methods to conduct this study including: participant observation, formal and informal surveys of all village residents age 15 years and older, and establishment of random sample plots and line transects of varying size and lengths in eight locally-recognized forest types. Initial plant collecting and interviews with knowledgeable healers from Nanga Juoi and neighboring villages were conducted between 1992 and 1995. A regionally-recognized healer from the village, Udat bin Badung (age 63), served as principal informant. A detailed ethnobotanical survey, including collection of voucher specimens of all medicinal species utilized by the healer, and extensive plot and transect sampling was completed in 1995. Medicinal plant specimens were identified in the local vernacular by the healer and in scientific nomenclature by taxonomists from Herbarium Bogoriense, Indonesia. Much of the voucher material was available in sterile condition only and thus could be identified to genus only. Where the healer and botanical interpretations differed, we recorded both (i.e., in several instances the healer identified distinct species that herbarium botanists considered single species).
    The Ransa Dayak of Nanga Juoi have developed a forest classification system which they use to demarcate hunting areas, swidden farms, and sites for medicinal plant collecting. The Ransa classification system includes four primary successional stages reflecting the transition from abandonment of recently cultivated swiddens through primary forest and parallels that described by tropical ecologists (Richards 1996; Whitmore 1984) (Table 1). Like its scientific counterpart, the Ransa system is based on a progression from a single layer of shade-intolerant pioneer species through development of structurally complex, species-rich dipterocarp dominated forests.
    The distribution of forest types in Nanga Juoi is complex because of the patchy distribution of both agricultural activities and the typically patchy distribution of tropical plants (Gentry 1991). In 1994, the number of young fallow sites was small relative to old fallow, recently logged forest, and primary forest. Furthermore, unlike primary and logged forest, swiddens typically occur in clusters near settlements and in areas with favorable soil and slope conditions. Thus, we used a variety of methods to sample the abundance and distribution of medicinal plants in the different forest types (Table 1).
    In the earliest successional stage (tempalai), where densities of some medicinal species were very high, we established 38 2 2m random sample plots. In young secondary forest (bawas baling), which had high densities of relatively few medicinal species, and occupied a smaller area, we established 23 2 2m plots. In later successional stages where densities of individual medicinal plants were lower and land areas larger, but sites remained clustered, we sampled using larger sample plots and line transects, specifically: 11 10 10m plots in early young successional sites (bawas beliung), 23 100 2m plots in early old sites (agung kelengank), and 30 100 2m plots in late successional sites (agung tua). In primary and logged forests, where plant densities were low, land areas large, and sites not clustered, we sampled using 2m wide 1000m long transects (three in recently logged forest between the park and the village and seven in primary forests). Finally, in river bench forests (pinggir sungai) we sampled using ten 10 10m plots. In each sample plot or transect, the identity, life form, and number of each medicinal species was noted. If locally-important medicinal plants were not recorded in any sample plots, the healer was asked to provide information regarding their relative abundance, distribution, and site preferences. These methods follow guidelines recommended by Hall and Bawa (1993).
    To ascertain the extent of medicinal plant knowledge and use among people in Nanga Juoi, we interviewed all village residents 15 years of age and older (n = 32). Formal surveys were completed at the end of the research period after villagers had become familiar with the study and researchers. We also spoke to all village residents on an informal basis to corroborate the survey data and to gather additional information. In the surveys, people were asked if they knew the identity and use of all of the medicinal plants utilized by the healer. They were also asked to identify the specific ailments treated with each plant, the plant part used, and how it was used.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

THE IDENTITY AND USE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
    The healer of Nanga Juoi identifies and uses over 250 medicinal species from at least 165 genera and 75 families; 163 of these plants were identified to species level (Appendix 1). Trees were the primary source of medicinal plants in terms of number of species (81), followed by herbs (65) and vines (45). Epiphytes, ferns, and aquatic plants comprised a smaller proportion of the medicinal plant flora (Table 2).
    These medicinal plants are used to treat a wide variety of ailments in Nanga Juoi, including: those of the skin, eye and ear; to treat headaches, provide astringents, relieve toothache pain; and to treat general and specific problems associated with the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, nervous and reproductive systems (Appendix 1). Some species are used on a regular basis to treat common ailments (particularly headaches, fever, skin ailments and digestive problems), while others are only occasionally used to treat specific and unusual ailments such as those used for treating heart disorders and kidney diseases. It is difficult to state which medicinal plants are most important to the Ransa Dayak. As Grenand (1992) has noted, the term "useful species" does not have the same meaning for all cultures and probably not for all individuals within a society. In fact, the Nanga Juoi healer, Udat bin Badung, observed that "all plants in the forest are useful" to the Ransa. Similar values are found in other cultures, such as the Mende of West Africa who report that "We Mende feel that all plants can be medicines." (Leach 1994).

THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
    Medicinal plants as identified by the Ransa of Nanga Juoi are abundant and widely distributed in the forests around Nanga Juoi (Table 3). Medicinal plant diversity was highest in old secondary forest (79 species), river bench (61 species), and primary forest sites (42 species), and lowest in logged (18 species) and early successional forests (29-37 species). Not surprisingly, individual plant population densities were highest in early successional and logged forests where several species were observed in very high densities. Thus, medicinal plant populations appear to exhibit the same general diversity and density patterns characteristic of tropical forests, namely: high species diversity, but low individual population densities in late successional and primary forests, and low species diversity, but large populations of a few species in early successional stages.
    Analysis of species-sampling curves in the sample plots revealed that the number of species recorded in young secondary, primary, logged, and river bench forests reflected actual plant species richness (i.e., species-sampling curves were flat at the conclusion of the sampling; no new species were recorded in the latter sample plots). However, the curve was still rising in old secondary forest sites (agung kelengang), which suggests that more species may occur in this forest type than were actually recorded.
    The abundance and distribution of medicinal plants is affected by successional stage and competition over such factors as light. Thus, it is not surprising that populations vary by life form in different forest types. Epiphytic medicinal plants, for example, are restricted to primary, river bench, and late successional forests where vegetation is older, forest structure more complex, and specific micro-environmental conditions required for growth and reproduction exist. In contrast, shade intolerant herbaceous medicinal plants dominate the early successional forest types.
    Seventeen medicinal species were restricted to a specific forest type as determined through sampling (40 species according to the healer) (Table 4). Primary forests contained the largest number (10) of restricted species (15 according to the healer). If successional phases are grouped into young and old stages, the results are even more pronounced; 13 species were restricted to young successional stages and 53 species were restricted to late successional and primary forests. Obviously, early successional environments are ill-suited for certain primary forest species (e.g., those requiring low-light, constant temperatures, high humidity, and specific structural characteristics). Conversely, all of the medicinal plants restricted to early successional stages are common elsewhere in Indonesia (i.e., Blumea balsamifera, Mallotus paniculatus, Melastoma affine, Pityrogramma tartarea, Urena lobata, and Cassia alata (Wijayakusuma, 1996).
    Traditionally, the residents of Nanga Juoi maintained small areas of primary forests (gupung) for religious reasons. These forests have reportedly remained free of agriculture for hundreds of years, but are used for collecting medicinal plants. River bench forests contain high medicinal species diversity and high population density values (13 000/ha) in comparison to other forest types. Thus, river bench forests may be a particularly important reserve for medicinal species in Kalimantan, just as Peruvian Amazon flood plain forests were found to be the most ethnobotanically important forest type (Phillips et al. 1994).
    While the maintenance of small forest reserves may contribute to the conservation of medicinal plants, small reserves can not insure their long-term survival. For example, Turner, et al. (1995) recorded a 51% loss of plant species richness over a 100 year period in a 4 ha lowland rainforest fragment in Singapore, with shade tolerant understorey shrubs, climbers and epiphytes showing particularly high extinction rates. Extensive logging and the creation of isolated forest patches will pose similar problems for the conservation of medicinal plant species around nanga Juoi. Similar patterns probably occur throughout Kalimantan as a result of extensive timber harvesting.
    The future availability of medicinal species may also be affected by destructive harvesting practices (i.e., if the entire plant or roots are harvested) (Table 5). Epiphytes are the most threatened plant type in this regard; fully 80% of epiphytic medicinal plant harvesting is fatal. This could be of significant medical importance because 11 out of 15 epiphytic medicinal species treat illnesses for which alternative remedies are unavailable. For example, Mapania cuspidata, an epiphyte restricted to primary forests, is used to treat heart ailments and no alternative species or remedies are available. After epiphytes, tree species restricted to primary forests warrant special conservation attention as 21 medicinal trees are harvested in a destructive manner.

MEDICINAL PLANT KNOWLEDGE AMONG RESIDENTS OF NANGA JUOI
    The residents of Nanga Juoi possess widely varying knowledge of medicinal species and their uses (Table 6). In general, older people and older females, in particular, are more knowledgeable about medicinal plants than young people and males. Men and women over the age of 25 could identify and describe the use, on average, of 46% of the medicinal plants utilized by the healer, or twice as many as younger people (23%). Older females were the most knowledgeable group; they could identify and describe the uses of 50% of all species, while young males could identify only 11%.
    Only three people in the village could identify and describe 75-100% of the medicinal plants utilized by the healer. This included two older women and one older man. Overall, 38% of the villagers had very limited knowledge (0-25%) of medicinal plants. Informal discussions with villagers revealed that young men were interested in medicinal plants primarily for increasing sexual potency and providing supra-natural abilities, while young women were interested in them for treating menstrual problems and as cosmetics.
    Although the primary healer in Nanga Juoi is a man (a position based on his extensive medicinal knowledge), women are generally more knowledgeable about medicinal plants than men and are the primary medicinal healers in other Ransa Dayak communities. Gender differences with respect to plant knowledge and use is wide-spread in many rural societies and reflects the fact that women tend to be more responsible for family and especially child health care, and a division of labor in which women often tend fields and gardens (Leach 1994; Rocheleau 1995). In Nanga Juoi, women work in swiddens that are located near the village and that were cleared from secondary forests. This may explain their greater familiarity with medicinal plants found in early successional environments. In contrast, older men are more knowledgeable about medicinal species found in primary forests (traditional male activities involved hunting and forest product collecting in primary forests in the proposed national park). Younger males no longer hunt and collect rattan as did their elders, but instead work as commercial loggers where they learn little about medicinal plants. For example, Doyo bin Udat, the 20 year old son of the healer, could identify only 9% of the medicinal plants prescribed by his father.
    All villagers (young and old) were more familiar with medicinal plants of early successional environments (e.g., ferns and herbs) than those found in primary forest. Seventy medicinal species were used by more than half of all villagers and over half of these occur in young secondary forests or are cultivated. Only 12 species (17%) were from primary forest. These regularly used species are used to treat common ailments such as headaches and fevers, skin problems, and diarrhea, and to enhance general health and fertility. Voeks (1996) observed similar patterns in coastal Brazil where he found that second growth forests yielded 2.7 times the number of medicinal species as primary forests and that healers demonstrated a strong preference for human-disturbed areas. Voeks attributed this to the high relative availability and intrinsic value of disturbance species, as well as the increasing rarity of primary forests and acculturation (i.e., loss of traditional plant knowledge). The Ransa Dayak of Nanga Juoi appear to be in transition along this continuum with the healer still utilizing primarily primary, river bench and late fallow forest species, while villagers are more knowledgeable about early successional species and young people have little medicinal plant knowledge at all.
    The Ransa recognize two primary types of medicinal plant knowledge and treatment: plants that contain natural compounds used for the treatment of specific ailments and specialized plants that contain both natural compounds and provide supra-natural powers. The former are frequently used by the healer and villagers alike, while supra-natural plants are used only by the healer. Knowledge of supra-natural plants is acquired through dreams and extensive knowledge of the forest. Leach (1994) describes a very similar pattern of medicinal plant knowledge and use among the Mende of West Africa where healers regularly visit primary forest not only to collect specific medicinal species, but also to seek assistance from forest spirits to learn of new medicines and as a means of demonstrating their bravery and power to other villagers.
    Medicinal plant knowledge, use, and the transfer of knowledge to younger generations can be affected by religious beliefs. In Nanga Juoi, visiting Protestant clergy discourage the use of medicinal plants because they consider it a form of traditional magic. However, only one villager indicated that he would not use medicinal species for this reason and his wife reported using them to the same extent as other villagers. Catholic priests, on the other hand, do not discourage villagers from using medicinal plants.
    Increased contact with outsiders (i.e., loggers and teachers), improved transportation and the growing availability of modern medicines are altering the knowledge and use of traditional plant medicines. While all villagers expressed interest in learning about medicinal plants, most stated that they preferred biomedical alternatives, particularly for treating headaches, light fevers, and mild stomach aches due to their perceived greater effectiveness. The high cost of traditional medicinal treatment (i.e., the healer expects payment, such as a chicken, for providing care and even more for sharing knowledge) appears to discourage the use of traditional medicines by some Nanga Juoi villagers, particularly if less expensive biomedical alternatives are available. Finally, no one is currently apprenticing with the elderly healer of Nanga Juoi. Thus, when he and other knowledgeable older people die, a significant portion of local ethnopharmacological knowledge will vanish as well, particularly that pertaining to species collected from primary forests for use in treating rare and unusual ailments. These same factors were believed to explain the loss of traditional ethnobotanical knowledge in an Iban community in Sarawak, Malaysia (Jarvie and Perumal 1994). Changing values, land and resource conflicts, and the absence of apprentices threaten persistence of traditional medicinal plant use in many traditional societies (Comerford 1996; Voeks 1996).

CONCLUSION
    Late successional, primary and river bench forests contained the highest diversity of medicinal species and the highest number of species restricted to specific forest types. All of the forest types sampled contained higher medicinal species diversity levels than logged forests, although logged forests contained greater numbers of certain individual medicinal plants. While simply totaling the number of useful species in a given forest is not a measure of that forest's importance (Phillips et al. 1994), the fact that primary and river bench forests contained the largest number of restricted species for which alternative remedies were unavailable and that most remaining primary forests are subject to logging, suggests that the conservation of primary and river bench forests will be crucial to the continued availability of traditional medicinal plant species. As is the case in other tropical environments (Leach 1994), the primary forests around Nanga Juoi provide medicines for rare ailments that can not be treated by other means and are an irreplaceable repository for the future.
    The conservation of primary and river bench forests will require curtailing logging activities over large contiguous areas so as to maintain reproductively viable populations of desired species, many of which occur at low population densities. Epiphytic species appear to be the most threatened group of medicinal plants in this context, followed by primary forest trees, due to their restricted distributions (i.e., specific habitat requirements), low population densities and the destructive nature of medicinal harvesting.
    This study indicates that there is a profound and growing knowledge gap between old and young people, and between men and women in Nanga Juoi. Young men in particular possess little knowledge of medicinal plants and no one is apprenticing with the elderly healer. When the healer and other knowledgeable elders of Nanga Juoi die, a large portion of the collective medicinal plant knowledge will perish as well, particularly that derived from primary forest and that pertaining to supra-natural powers. Traditional medicinal plant use will likely persist in Nanga Juoi and elsewhere in Kalimantan only if sufficient primary forests near villages are reserved from logging, and if local people retain their value for and knowledge of medicinal plant use.
ADDED MATERIAL
    Caniago, Izefri (USAID NRMP2, Jl. Madiun 3, Jakarta Pusat, 10230, Indonesia) and Stephen F. Siebert (School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812).
    STEPHEN F. SIEBERT
    Correspondence.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    This research was supported by a grant from the USAID-funded Indonesia NRM/ARD Project. We appreciate the comments and suggestions provided by Jill Belsky, Jim Jarvie, an anonymous reviewer, and the editor on earlier drafts of this manuscript, and are grateful to the staff of Herbarium Bogoriense for assistance in identifying voucher specimens. We especially appreciate the generosity, patience and assistance of Udat bin Batung and the residents of Nanga Juoi.
    Received 6 March 1997; accepted 28 December 1997.
    TABLE 1. FOREST CLASSIFICATION AMONG THE RANSA DAYAK OF NANGA JUOI.

 Ransa term Ecological phase Key characteristics Sampling methodology
Tempalai initial secondary suc- 1 yr. after cessation shift- 38 2 X 2 m plots
 cession ing cultivation
Bawas young secondary for-
 est
 baling early plants to 10 cm dbh, age 23 2 X 2 m plots
 1-4 yrs.
 beliung late plants to 20 cm dbh, age 11 10 X 10 m plots
 4-10 yrs.
Agung old secondary forest
 kelengang early plants 20-40 cm dbh, age 23 2 X 100 m plots
 10-20 yrs.
 tua late plants 40-80 cm dbh, un- 30 2 X 100 m plots
 cultivated 40+ yrs.
Rimba primary forest species rich, structurally 7 2 m X 1 km transects
 diverse, never cultivat-
 ed
Bekas tebang logged forest logged 1994 3 2 m X 1 km transects
Pinggir Sungai river bench forest species rich, protected, 10 10 X 10 m plots
 never cultivated

    TABLE 2. THE NUMBER OF MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES BY LIFE FORM.

 Number of
 Life form species
Epiphyte 15
Fern 14
Herb 65
Shrub 15
Tree 81
Vines 45
Aquatic plants 2
 TOTAL 237

    TABLE 3. MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE BY FOREST TYPE.

 Number Total
 of density
 Forest type species (per ha)
Initial Secondary 37 132271
Young Secondary (early) 29 94990
 (old) 36 24491
Old Secondary (early) 79 9112
 (old) 28 5806
Primary 42 744
Logged 18 1108
River Bench 61 37750

    TABLE 4. THE NUMBER OF MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES WITH RESTRICTED DISTRIBUTIONS.

 Number of restricted species
 Recorded Reported by
 Forest type in plots medicine man
Initial Secondary 1 6
Young Secondary 2 6
Old Secondary 4 13
Primary Forest 10 15

    TABLE 5. IMPACTS OF MEDICINAL PLANT HARVESTING BY LIFE FORM.

 Number of species
 Epi- Aquat-
 Harvesting type phyte Fern Herb Shrub Tree Vine ic
Destructive 12 2 25 4 21 11 1
Non-destructive 3 12 40 11 60 34 1

    TABLE 6. MEDICINAL PLANT KNOWLEDGE AMONG NANGA JOUI RESIDENTS.

 Mean
 medicinal
 plant Number
 Resident group knowledge (N = 32)
All males 26% 12
All females 42 20
People older than 25 46 11
People younger than 25 23 21
Males older than 25 41 9
Males younger than 25 11 3
Females older than 25 50 12
Females younger than 25 34 8

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    Riswan, S., and K. Kartawinata. 1991. Regeneration after disturbance in a lowland mixed Dipterocarp forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Pages 295-301 in A. Gomez-Pompa, T. C. Whitmore and M. Hadley, eds., Rain Forest Regeneration and Management. The Parthenon Pub. Group, Park Ridge, NJ.
    Rocheleau, D. E. 1995. Gender and biodiversity: a feminist political ecology perspective. International Development Studies Bulletin 26:9-15.
    Stix, G. 1993. Back to roots: drug companies forage for new treatments (plant-derived pharmaceuticals). Scientific American 268:142-144.
    Turner, I. M., K. S. Chua, S. Y. Ong, B. C. Soong, and H. T. W. Tan. 1996. A century of plant species loss from an isolated fragment of lowland tropical rain forest. Conservation Biology 10:1229-1244.
    Voeks, R. A. 1996. Tropical forest healers and habitat preference. Economic Botany 50:381-400.
    Whitmore, T. C. 1984. Tropical Rainforests of The Far East. 2nd ed. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
    Wijayakusuma, H. H. M. 1996. Tanaman Berkhasiat Obat di Indonesia. Pustaka Kartini, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    APPENDIX 1. THE IDENTITY, ABUNDANCE, USE, AND KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN NANGA JUOI, KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA.

 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher(FN2) I E-1 E-2 L-1
Acanthaceae
 Gendarussa vulgaris Ness. Pengkaruas 179 0 0 0 0
 Hemigraphis sp. Obat merayap 99 0 0 0 0
 Pseudoranthemum sp. Samah hitam 39 0 0 0 0
 P. sp. Samah merah 94 0 0 0 0
Actinidiaceae
 Saurauia sp. Inggur-inggur 14 0 0 0 35
 S. sibcordata Korth. Inggur(FN2) pipit 21 0 0 1764 17
 S. zeitgeri Korth. Inggur(FN2) merah 152 0 0 0 0
 S. sp. Inggur(FN2) badak 36 0 500 82 24
Amaranthaceae
 Celosia argentea L. Bunga merah 131 0 0 0 0
 Cyathula prostrata (L.) Bl. Rasa 47 0 0 0 0
 Gomphrena globosa L. Kembang setahun 113 0 0 0 0
Amaryllidaceae
 Curculigo sp. Lomba 58 1429 900 0 189
 C. borneensis Lomba minyak 162 0 0 0 0
 C. latifolia Dryand. Tombak hantu 167 0 0 0 13
Annonaceae
 Canagium odorata (Lam.)
 Hook. f. et Thomson Merua 80 0 100 0 0
 Cyathocalyx bancana Boerl. Penantat 96 0 0 0 0
 C. sp. Penantat 96 0 0 18 17
 Goniothalamus macrophyllus
 Miq. Sampuk puar 59 71 0 0 0
 Polyacthia sp. Rai 46 0 0 0 0
Apocynaceae
 Alstonia scholaris R.Br. Pelai 65 0 0 0 18
 Tabernaemontana macrocarpa
 Jack Temperanang 89 0 0 0 2
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used(FN4) Use(FN4)
Acanthaceae
 Gendarussa vulgaris Ness. 0 0 0 0 4 6,10
 Hemigraphis sp. 0 0 0 0 4 5
 Pseudoranthemum sp. 0 0 0 0 4 12
 P. sp. 0 2 23 0 4 12
Actinidiaceae
 Saurauia sp. 0 0 0 0 4 3,12
 S. sibcordata Korth. 0 1 0 1754 4 12
 S. zetigeri Korth. 0 0 0 0 4 3
 S. sp. 0 3 0 149 4 12
Amaranthaceae
 Celosia argentea L. 0 0 0 0 5,4 3
 Cyathula prostrata (L.) Bl. 0 0 0 0 4 9
 Gomphrena globosa L. 0 0 0 0 4 5
Amaryllidaceae
 Curculigo sp. 0 0 0 75 3 9,12
 C. borneensis 0 0 0 0 4 5
 C. latifolia Dryand. 12 2 0 0 4 15
Annonaceae
 Canagium odorata (Lam.)
 Hook. f. et Thomson 0 0 0 37 4 8
 Cyathocalyx bancana Boerl. 0 0 0 4 5,8
 C. sp. 0 1 0 37 4 5,8
 Goniothalamus macrophyllus
 Miq. 0 1 0 0 8 10
 Polyacthia sp. 0 0 0 0 5 6,13
Apocynaceae
 Alstonia scholaris R.Br. 0 0 16 0 6 12
 Tabernaemontana macrocarpa
 Jack 0 0 5 0 6 10
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form(FN5) pact(FN6) K% (FN7)
Acanthaceae
 Gendarussa vulgaris Ness. 3 ND 22
 Hemigraphis sp. 8 ND 0
 Pseudoranthemum sp. 3 ND 19
 P. sp. 3 ND 16
Actinidiaceae
 Saurauia sp. 6 ND 69
 S. sibcordata Korth. 7 ND 31
 S. zetigeri Korth. 6 ND 56
 S. sp. 6 ND 78
Amaranthaceae
 Celosia argentea L. 3 D 31
 Cyathula prostrata (L.) Bl. 3 ND 9
 Gomphrena globosa L. 3 ND 31
Amaryllidaceae
 Curculigo sp. 3 ND 34
 C. borneensis 3 ND 25
 C. latifolia Dryand. 3 ND 22
Annonaceae
 Canagium odorata (Lam.)
 Hook. f. et Thomson 5 ND 78
 Syathocalyx bancana Boerl. 6 ND 19
 C. sp. 6 ND 19
 Goniothalamus macrophyllus
 Miq. 6 D 59
 Polyacthia sp. 8 D 3
Apocynaceae
 Alstonia scholaris R.Br. 5 ND 50
 Tabernaemontana macrocarpa
 Jack 6 ND 25
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher(FN2) I E-1 E-2 L-1
Aquifoliaceae
 Ilex cissoides Loes. Segarak 92 0 0 0 0
Araceae
 Amorphophallus campanulatus
 (Roxb.) Bl. ex. Deene. Badul 28 0 0 0 0
 Homalomena cordata Schoot. Murau 53 0 0 0 15
 H. sp. Selimpat cakau 47 0 0 0 13
 Pothos sp. Akar tikus 2 0 0 0 0
Araliaceae
 Arthrophyllum javanicum Bl. Mulai 198 0 0 0 0
 Schefflera elliptica (Bl.)
 Harms. Kayu rauk 125 0 0 0 13
 S. sp. Rajang raung 110 0 0 0 0
Arecaceae
 Areca catechu L. Pinang NS 0 0 0 0
 Arenga pinnata (Wurmb.)
 Merr. Enau NS 0 0 0 0
 Cocos nucifera L. Kelapa NS 0 0 0 0
 Salacca sp. Lemayung 203 0 0 0 0
Asclepiadaceae
 Asclopiade sp. Pulung merampuk 44 0 0 0 0
 Toxocarpus sp. Pulung nyangkau 118 0 0 0 26
Asteraceae
 Blumea balsamifera D.C. Ambung-ambung 63 39786 600 0 0
 B. chinensis D.C. Sedidai 75 0 2000 136 0
 Tagetes erecta L. Bunga merak 112 0 0 0 0
 Vernonia arborea Buch.
 Ham. Tapang babi 66 71 300 18 0
 Wedelia sp. Copur pulut 8 0 0 0 0
Aspidiaceae
 Tectaria polymorpha Wall. Paku karah 81 929 0 1209 317
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used(FN3) Use(FN4)
Aquifoliaceae
 Ilex cissoides Loes. 0 0 0 0 4 1,8
Araceae
 Amorphophallus campanulatus
 (Roxb.) Bl. ex. Deene. 0 1 0 0 8,4 12
 Homalomena cordata Schoot. 43 0 0 0 5,4 8,12
 H. sp. 0 0 0 0 8,4 3,10,12
 Pothos sp. 0 0 0 0 8 2
Araliaceae
 Arthrophyllum javanicum Bl. 0 0 0 0 4 6
 Schefflera elliptica (Bl.)
 Harms. 0 0 0 0 4 10
 S. sp. 0 0 0 0 5 5
Arecaceae
 Areca catechu L. 0 0 0 19 3,4 3,12
 Arenga pinnata (Wurmb.)
 Merr. 0 0 0 0 8 6
 Cocos nucifera L. 0 0 0 0 3 6
 Salacca sp. 0 0 0 0 6 8
Asclepiadaceae
 Asclopiade sp. 0 0 0 0 5,4 16
 Toxocarpus sp. 4 0 0 429 4 5,8
Asteraceae
 Blumea balsamifera D.C. 0 0 0 0 10 8,9
 B. chinensis D.C. 0 0 0 112 4 9,12
 Tagetes erecta L. 0 0 0 0 4 12
 Vernonia arborea Buch.
 Ham. 0 0 0 112 5,4 3
 Wedelia sp. 0 0 0 0 4 5,9,12
Aspidiaceae
 Tectaria polymorpha Wall. 0 0 0 3914 9 12
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form(FN5)pact(FN6) K% (FN7)
Aquifoliaceae
 Ilex cissoides Loes. 6 ND 38
Araceae
 Amorphophallus campanulatus
 (Roxb.) Bl. ex. Deene. 3 D 25
 Homalomena cordata Schoot. 3 D 44
 H. sp. 3 D 31
 Pothos sp. 8 ND 9
Araliaceae
 Arthrophyllum javanicum Bl. 7 ND 81
 Schefflera elliptica (Bl.)
 Harms. 7 ND 38
 S. sp. 1 D 9
Arecaceae
 Areca catechu L. 6 ND 38
 Arenga pinnata (Wurmb.)
 Merr. 6 D 3
 Cocos nucifera L. 6 ND 19
 Salacca sp. 6 ND 47
Asclepiadaceae
 Asclopiade sp. 1 D 16
 Toxocarpus sp. 1 ND 44
Asteraceae
 Blumea balsamifera D.C. 7 D 88
 B. chinensis D.C. 8 ND 75
 Tagetes erecta L. 3 ND 47
 Vernonia arborea Buch.
 Ham. 3 D 56
 Wedelia sp. 3 ND 78
Aspidiaceae
 Tectaria polymorpha Wall. 2 ND 31
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher(FN2) I E-1 E-2 L-1
Athyriaceae
 Diplazium cordifolium Bl. Paku cakau 145 0 0 0 11
Balsaminaceae
 Impatiens balsamina L. Cerengak 192 0 0 0 0
Begoniaceae
 Begonia sp. Riang badak 20 0 0 0 0
 B. sp. Riang padi 11 0 0 0 2
Blechnaceae
 Blechnum orientale L. Paku kijang 104 0 0 118 72
 Stenochlaena palustris Bedd. Pakunaik 87 0 1300 3255 75
Caesalpinaceae
 Sindora parvifolia Backer. Paru-paru 174 0 0 0 0
Capparidaceae
 Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC Tegaruk 40 0 0 0 0
Caricaceae
 Carica papaya L. Pepaya NS 0 0 0 0
Clusiaceae
 Garcinia dioica Bl. Pandau marit 180 0 0 0 0
 G. parvifolia Miq. Kandis 200 0 0 0 0
Combretaceae
 Combretum elmeri Merr. Rikun 156 0 0 0 0
 C. sp. Obat manang NS 0 0 0 0
Connaraceae
 Cnestis palala Merr.
 C. platantha Griff. Engkuluyut 34 0 0 27 17
 Rourea mimosoides (Vahl.)
 Planch. Kayu alit 84 0 300 827 992
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used(FN3) Use(FN4)
Athyriaceae
 Diplazium cordifolium Bl. 0 7 35 0 5,4 3
Balsaminaceae
 Impatiens balsamina L. 0 0 0 0 4 12
Begoniaceae
 Begonia sp. 0 27 4 0 4 10
 B. sp. 0 16 24 0 4 10
Blechnaceae
 Blechnum orientale L. 15 0 4 19 8 12
 Stenochlaena palustris Bedd. 7 0 0 2369 4 12
Caesalpinaceae
 Sindora parvifolia Backer. 0 0 0 0 6 12
Capparidaceae
 Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC 0 0 0 0 4 6
Caricaceae
 Carica papaya L. 0 0 0 0 5,3,2 6
Clusiaceae
 Garcinia dioica Bl. 0 0 0 0 4 5
 G. parvifolia Miq. 0 0 0 0 6 12
Combretaceae
 Combretum elmeri Merr. 0 0 0 0 4 5
 C. sp. 0 0 0 0 4 12
Connaraceae
 Cnestis palala Merr.
 C. platantha Griff. 73 2 4 0 4 8,12
 Rourea mimosoides (Vahl.)
 Planch. 1767 87 0 4291 4 12
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form(FN5) pact(FN6) K% (FN7)
Athyriaceae
 Diplazium cordifolium Bl. 2 D 25
Balsaminaceae
 Impatiens balsamina L. 4 ND 59
Begoniaceae
 Begonia sp. 3 ND 41
 B. sp. 3 ND 19
Blechnaceae
 Blechnum orientale L. 2 ND 59
 Stenochlaena palustris Bedd. 2 ND 41
Caesalpinaceae
 Sindora parvifolia Backer. 5 ND 22
Capparidaceae
 Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC 6 ND 16
Caricaceae
 Carica papaya L. 7 D 63
Clusiaceae
 Garcinia dioica Bl. 6 ND 9
 G. parvifolia Miq. 6 ND 0
Combretaceae
 Combretum elmeri Merr. 8 ND 41
 C. sp. 8 ND 0
Connaraceae
 Cnestis palala Merr.
 C. platantha Griff. 8 ND 44
 Rourea mimosoides (Vahl.)
 Planch. 8 ND 75
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type[sup1]
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher[sup2] I E-1 E-2 L-1
Convolvulaceae
 Erycibe tomentosa Bl. Kusuk melumur 177 0 0 0 0
 E. tomentosa Bl. Sinobul 105 0 0 0 7
 Jaqcuemontia tomentella
 (Miq.) Hallier f. Ampur 52 2857 3500 582 50
Cucurbitaceae
 Momordica sp. Peria NS 0 0 0 0
Cyperaceae
 Mapania cuspidata (Miq.)
 Uitt Parang hantu 31 0 0 0 4
 M. cuspidata (Miq.) Uitt Parang hantu putih 2 0 0 0 0
 Scleria purpurascens Steud. Lambak 147 0 0 0 0
Dilleniaceae
 Tetracera asiatica (Lour.)
 Hogl. Kempelas 42 0 100 0 578
Euphorbiaceae
 Agrotistachys leptostachya Semakar 4 0 0 0 0
 Pax & K. Hoffm.
 Antidesma stipulare BL. Ketitik A 15 0 0 0 165
 A. stipulare Bl. Ketitik B 10 0 0 0 4
 Baccaurea lanceolata Muell.
 Arg. Empahung 61 0 0 0 0
 Croton tiglium L. Kemandah 62 0 0 0 0
 Macaranga brevipetiolata
 Airy Shaw Ketitik bulu 27 0 0 0 0
 Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.)
 Muell. Arg. Balek angin 67 429 200 0 0
 Pedilanthus tithymaloides
 (L.) Poit. Mokoh 120 0 0 0 0
 Phyllanthus urinaria L. Rumput ngamin anak 181 0 0 0 0
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type[sup1]
 Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used[sup3] Use[sup4]
Convolvulaceae
 Erycibe tomentosa Bl. 0 0 0 0 4 12
 E. tomentosa Bl. 0 0 0 19 4 12
 Jaqcuemontia tomentella
 (Miq.) Hallier f. 0 0 0 261 4 12
Cucurbitaceae
 Momordica sp. 0 0 0 0 3,4 5
Cyperaceae
 Mapania cuspidata (Miq.)
 Uitt 13 31 40 0 5,4 15,16
 M. cuspidata (Miq.) Uitt 0 0 0 0 5,4 15,16
 Scleria purpurascens Steud. 0 0 0 0 8 6
Dilleniaceae
 Tetracera asiatica (Lour.)
 Hogl. 18 0 0 19 5 6,13
Euphorbiaceae
 Agrotistachys leptostachya 0 0 0 0 5 13
 Pax & K. Hoffm.
 Antidesma stipulare BL. 273 5 45 37 8 14
 A. stipulare Bl. 0 4 12 0 8 14
 Baccaurea lanceolata Muell.
 Arg. 0 0 0 0 3 10,12
 Croton tiglium L. 0 0 0 0 7 3,8
 Macaranga brevipetiolata
 Airy Shaw 0 0 0 0 8 14
 Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.)
 Muell. Arg. 0 0 0 37 4,1 3,5
 Pedilanthus tithymaloides
 (L.) Poit. 0 0 0 0 4 5,8
 Phyllanthus urinaria L. 0 0 0 0 4 5
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form[sup5] pact[sup6] K% [sup7]
Convolvulaceae
 Erycibe tomentosa Bl. 8 ND 66
 E. tomentosa Bl. 8 ND 3
 Jaqcuemontia tomentella
 (Miq.) Hallier f. 8 ND 56
Cucurbitaceae
 Momordica sp. 8 ND 9
Cyperaceae
 Mapania cuspidata (Miq.)
 Uitt 3 D 31
 M. cuspidata (Miq.) Uitt 3 D 6
 Scleria purpurascens Steud. 7 ND 34
Dilleniaceae
 Tetracera asiatica (Lour.)
 Hogl. 8 D 75
Euphorbiaceae
 Agrotistachys leptostachya 7 D 9
 Pax & K. Hoffm.
 Antidesma stipulare BL. 7 D 16
 A. stipulare Bl. 7 D 16
 Baccaurea lanceolata Muell.
 Arg. 6 ND 69
 Croton tiglium L. 4 ND 34
 Macaranga brevipetiolata
 Airy Shaw 7 D 13
 Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.)
 Muell. Arg. 6 ND 63
 Pedilanthus tithymaloides
 (L.) Poit. 3 ND 28
 Phyllanthus urinaria L. 3 ND 78
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher(FN2) I E-1 E-2 L-1
Fabaceae
 Cassia alata L. Gelinggang 70 1286 0 0 0
 Crotalaria retusa L. Kacang kopi 16 0 0 0 0
 Derris cf. caudata Bth. Tuba donak 55 71 0 0 4
 Desmodium heterocarpum
 DC. Pintu tengkuyuk 77 0 0 382 0
 Flemingia sp. Obat tangan pecah 36 0 0 0 0
 F. strombilifera R.Br. Kayu aras 169 0 0 0 0
 Fordia splendissima R.Br. Serantung 146 71 1400 0 535
 F. splendissima R.Br. Serantung pipit 29 0 0 0 8
 Panera sp. Kayu raum 150 0 0 0 39
 Phaseolus sp. Akar lomai 189 0 0 0 0
 Saraca indica L. Boyu 116 0 0 0 0
 Uriraria crinita (L.) Desv.
 ex DC. Ikong asu 85 0 200 0 0
Gesneriaceae
 Aeschynanthus sp. Kayu pengelas 20 0 0 0 0
 Cyrtandra sp. Tembakau dahan 103 0 0 0 0
Gleicheniaceae
 Gleichenia sp. Resam putih 90 214 0 0 141
 G. longissima Bl. Resam tedung 76 786 0 500 15
Graminae
 Oryza sativa L. Padi NS 0 0 0 0
Hydrocharitaceae
 Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers. Kelambti tukuk 187 0 0 0 0
Labiateae
 Coleus scutellaroides Bth. Ati-ati 79 0 0 0 0
 Hyptis capitata Jack. Rumput jepang 185 0 0 0 0
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used(FN3) Use(FN4)
Fabaceae
 Cassia alata L. 47 0 0 75 4,3 3,12
 Crotalaria retusa L. 0 0 0 0 4,3 8
 Derris cf. caudata Bth. 0 0 0 0 5 8
 Desmodium heterocarpum
 DC. 0 0 0 746 10 5
 Flemingia sp. 0 0 0 0 4 12
 F. strombilifera R.Br. 0 0 0 0 4 5
 Fordia splendissima R.Br. 243 198 69 168 5 13
 F. splendissima R.Br. 0 0 0 41 5 14
 Panera sp. 1897 0 0 0 4 5
 Phaseolus sp. 0 0 0 0 5 9
 Saraca indica L. 0 0 0 4865 1,4 3
 Uriraria crinita (L.) Desv.
 ex DC. 0 0 0 168 4 10
Gesneriaceae
 Aeschynanthus sp. 0 0 0 0 3 9
 Cyrtandra sp. 0 0 0 0 4 12
Gleicheniaceae
 Gleichenia sp. 0 0 0 0 4 9
 G. longissima Bl. 0 0 0 329 4 9
Graminae
 Oryza sativa L. 0 0 0 0 7 5
Hydrocharitaceae
 Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers. 0 0 0 0 4 5
Labiateae
 Coleus scutellaroides Bth. 0 0 0 0 4 3,5
 Hyptis capitata Jack. 0 0 0 0 4 8
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form(FN5) pact(FN6) K% (FN7)
Fabaceae
 Cassia alata L. 4 ND 75
 Crotalaria retusa L. 4 ND 13
 Derris cf. caudata Bth. 7 D 22
 Desmodium heterocarpum
 DC. 8 D 72
 Flemingia sp. 8 ND 0
 F. strombilifera R.Br. 4 ND 44
 Fordia splendissima R.Br. 7 D 59
 F. splendissima R.Br. 7 D 31
 Panera sp. 4 ND 31
 Phaseolus sp. 8 D 31
 Saraca indica L. 5 D 50
 Uriraria crinita (L.) Desv.
 ex DC. 8 ND 56
Gesneriaceae
 Aeschynanthus sp. 1 ND 31
 Cyrtandra sp. 1 ND 78
Gleicheniaceae
 Gleichenia sp. 2 ND 22
 G. longissima Bl. 2 ND 41
Graminae
 Oryza sativa L. 3 ND 0
Hydrocharitaceae
 Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers. 9 ND 84
Labiateae
 Coleus scutellaroides Bth. 3 ND 41
 Hyptis capitata Jack. 7 ND 16
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher(FN2) I E-1 E-2 L-1
Lauraceae
 Cinnamomum cf. Culivan Bl. Lawang 160 0 0 0 0
 Eusideroxylon zwageri
 Teijsm. & Binn. Ulin NS 0 0 0 0
 Litsea elliptica Bl. Medang pawas 197 0 0 0 0
Lecythidaceae
 Barringtonia sp. Pisang beruang 3 0 0 0 4
Leeaceae
 Leea aequata L. Mali-mali 44 643 300 645 96
 L. omabilis Master Lahodak 32 0 0 9 29
 L. omabilis Master Lahodak merah 106 0 0 9 50
Linaceae
 Ixonanthes petiolaris Bl. Berbidak 115 0 0 0 6
Lycopodiaceae
 Helmintostachys zeylanica
 Hook. Tempuruk kecil 108 0 0 0 4
 Lycopodium cernuum L. Serabun kecil 37 643 9000 155 24
 L. cernuum L. Rabun 101 0 0 0 0
Malpighiaceae
 Heteropteryx sp. Obat manang 170 0 0 0 0
Malvaceae
 Urena lobata L. Jelumpang 78 0 300 27 0
Marantaceae
 Donax cannaeformis K. Scho. Bomban 54 1214 500 2282 811
 Phrynium sp. Ririk badak 18 0 0 0 65
 P. capitatum Willd. Ririk lelabi 129 0 0 0 35
 P. sp. Ririk tilan 26 0 0 0 0
 Stachyphrynium sp. Ririk tilan 26 0 0 0 12
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used(FN3) Use(FN4)
Lauraceae
 Cinnamomum cf. Culivan Bl. 0 0 0 0 5,1 6,13
 Eusideroxylon zwageri
 Teijsm. & Binn. 0 0 0 0 5 13
 Litsea elliptica Bl. 0 0 0 0 4 3
Lecythidaceae
 Barringtonia sp. 0 4 0 0 5,4,3 9
Leeaceae
 Leea aequata L. 0 0 0 448 5 4,1 12,13
 L. omabilis Master 23 2 23 0 4,3 4
 L. omabilis Master 2 0 0 19 4 4
Linaceae
 Ixonanthes petiolaris Bl. 0 0 0 19 1 3
Lycopodiaceae
 Helmintostachys zeylanica
 Hook. 0 0 0 0 4 3
 Lycopodium cernuum L. 0 0 0 486 4 12
 L. cernuum L. 0 0 0 0 4 5
Malpighiaceae
 Heteropteryx sp. 0 0 0 0 4 12
Malvaceae
 Urena lobata L. 0 0 0 877 5 6,13
Marantaceae
 Donax cannaeformis K. Scho. 0 0 0 3937 5,4 9,12
 Phrynium sp. 0 0 0 93 4 8
 P. capitatum Willd. 17 97 68 75 4 8
 P. sp. 0 0 0 0 5 8
 Stachyphrynium sp. 1 61 275 0 5 8
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form(FN5) pact(FN6) K% (FN7)
Lauraceae
 Cinnamomum cf. Culivan Bl. 5 D 78
 Eusideroxylon zwageri
 Teijsm. & Binn. 5 D 0
 Litsea elliptica Bl. 5 ND 31
Lecythidaceae
 Barringtonia sp. 7 D 25
Leeaceae
 Leea aequata L. 4 D 75
 L. omabilis Master 7 ND 53
 L. omabilis Master 7 ND 50
Linaceae
 Ixonanthes petiolaris Bl. 5 ND 19
Lycopodiaceae
 Helmintostachys zeylanica
 Hook. 2 ND 3
 Lycopodium cernuum L. 2 ND 9
 L. cernuum L. 3 ND 19
Malpighiaceae
 Heteropteryx sp. 8 ND 0
Malvaceae
 Urena lobata L. 4 D 88
Marantaceae
 Donax canneformis K. Scho. 3 D 38
 Phrynium sp. 3 ND 28
 P. capitatum Willd. 3 ND 25
 P. sp. 3 D 34
 Stachyphrynium sp. 3 D 34
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher(FN2) I E-1 E-2 L-1
Melastomaceae
 Dissochaeta cf. ramosii
 Merr. Gelagan akar 121 0 0 0 7
 D. cf. ramosii Merr. Lompit cakau 165 0 0 0 9
 Melastoma affine (D.)
 Don. Kemunting 64 4500 35 000 155 0
 Pachycentria constricta
 Merr. Rinan sesat 6 0 0 0 0
 P. constricta Merr. Limau merintai 27 0 0 0 0
 Parasonerilla axxiflora Ohwi. Samah putih 1,12 0 0 0 0
 Phyllagathis dajakensis Ohwi. Obat berak landir 142 0 0 0 0
 Pternandra cordata (Korth.)
 Bailey Gelagan halus 144 0 0 0 0
 P. cordiophylla Ohwi. Gelagan badak 143 0 0 0 273
 Sonerila sp. Obat belang putih 112 0 0 0 0
Menispermaceae
 Coscinium fenestratum
 Colbr. Entemu tegah 5 0 0 0 22
 Perycamphyllus glaucus (Lam.)
 Merr. Santuk malik 71 286 100 0 0
 P. glaucus (Lam.) Merr. Kemponing 73 71 100 45 43
 Pycnarrhena sp. Sengkubak 138 0 0 0 0
 Tinomiscium phytocrenoids
 Kurz. Alit badak 7 0 0 0 0
Moraceae
 Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. Ipuh NS 0 0 0 0
 Ficus deltoidea Jack. Obat manang NS 0 0 0 0
Myristicaceae
 Myristica sp. Kumpang balik 153 0 0 0 2
Myrsinaceae
 Ardisia sp. Engkacap burung NS 0 0 0 0
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used(FN3) Use(FN4)
Melastomaceae
 Dissochaeta cf. ramosii
 Merr. 0 0 0 0 4 10
 D. cf. ramosii Merr. 0 0 0 0 4 12
 Melastoma affine (D.)
 Don. 0 0 4 1679 8,2,4 3,4
 Pachycentria constricta
 Merr. 0 0 5 0 5 12
 P. constricta Merr. 0 0 0 0 5 12
 Parasonerilla axxiflora Ohwi. 0 8 19 0 4 12
 Phyllagathis dajakensis Ohwi. 0 0 0 0 4 3
 Pternandra cordata (Korth.)
 Bailey 0 0 0 0 4 10
 P. cordiophylla Ohwi. 0 0 0 19 4 10
 Sonerila sp. 0 0 0 0 4 12
Menispermaceae
 Coscinium fenestratum
 Colbr. 117 10 4 19 5,8,4 6,13
 Perycamphyllus glaucus (Lam.)
 Merr. 0 0 0 0 4 1,3,9
 P. glaucus (Lam.) Merr. 0 0 0 79 5,4 6,9
 Pycnarrhena sp. 4 1 0 0 4 8
 Tinomiscium phytocrenoids
 Kurz. 0 0 12 0 4 12
Moraceae
 Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. 0 0 0 0 5,6 8
 Ficus deltoidea Jack. 0 0 0 0 4 12
Myristicaceae
 Myristica sp. 0 0 0 0 4 5
Myrsinaceae
 Ardisia sp. 0 0 0 5,4 10
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form(FN5) pact(FN6) K% (FN7)
Melastomaceae
 Dissochaeta cf. ramosii
 Merr. 8 ND 19
 D. cf. ramosii Merr. 8 ND 22
 Melastoma affine (D.)
 Don. 4 D 72
 Pachycentria constricta
 Merr. 1 D 19
 P. constricta Merr. 1 D 56
 Parasonerilla axxiflora Ohwi. 3 ND 16
 Phyllagathis dajakensis Ohwi. 3 ND 0
 Pternandra cordata (Korth.)
 Bailey 6 ND 16
 P. cordiophylla Ohwi. 6 ND 22
 Sonerila sp. 4 ND 0
Menispermaceae
 Coscinium fenestratum
 Colbr. 8 D 78
 Perycamphyllus glaucus (Lam.)
 Merr. 6 ND 31
 P. glaucus (Lam.) Merr. 8 D 53
 Pycnarrhena sp. 8 ND 53
 Tinomiscium phytocrenoids
 Kurz. 8 ND 25
Moraceae
 Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. 5 D 9
 Ficus deltoidea Jack. 1 ND 0
Myristicaceae
 Myristica sp. 5 ND 25
Myrsinaceae
 Ardisia sp. 7D 19
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher(FN2) I E-1 E-2 L-1
 Embelia ribes Burn. Lumping seladang 123 0 0 0 0
 E. viridiflora (DC.) Scheff. Lompit pipit 159 0 0 0 0
 Maesa sp. Kayti koyak 136 143 0 0 11
Myrtaceae
 Syzygium sp. Salah jari 26 0 0 0 0
 Tristania whiteana Griff. Belaban 68 286 0 0 9
 T. sp. Ayau 91 0 0 509 43
Olacaceae
 Scorodocarpus borneensis
 (Baill.) Becc. Sinduk 24 0 0 0 0
Orchidaceae
 Apostasia wallichii R.Br. Sabak surai 176 0 0 0 0
 Bromheadin finlaysoniana
 Reichb.f. Lomba ahep 175 0 0 0 0
 Calanthe sp. Tukat 88 0 100 55 313
 C. sp. Tukat padi 166 0 0 0 0
 Coelogyne sp. Rajak ahep 182 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Tebu ahep 178 0 0 0 0
Passifloraceae
 Adenia heterophylla (Bl.)
 Koordes. Kamahak 126 0 0 0 13
 A. heterophylla (Bl.) Koordes Semukau 122 0 0 0 0
Poaceae
 Centotheca lappacea Desv. Jobuk 102,119 0 0 0 0
 Paspalum conjugatum Berg. Rumput belanda 117 0 0 0 0
Polypodiaceae
 Drynaria sparsisora
 (Desv.) T. Moore Pinang engkaruk 188 0 0 0 52
 Pityrogramma calomenalos
 Link. Paku timah 164 0 0 0 0
 P. tartarea Link. Paku kora 60 2500 1100 0 0
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used(FN3) Use(FN4)
 Embelia ribes Burn. 0 0 0 0 4 10
 E. viridiflora (DC.) Scheff. 0 0 0 0 4 10
 Maesa sp. 0 0 0 0 4 9
Myrtaceae
 Syzygium sp. 0 0 0 0 .4 8
 Tristania whiteana Griff. 0 0 0 299 1,4 1
 T. sp. 2 0 0 486 1,4 1
Olacaceae
 Scorodocarpus borneensis
 (Baill.) Becc. 0 4 0 0 5,1 6
Orchidaceae
 Apostasia wallichii R.Br. 0 0 0 0 4 5
 Bromheadin finlaysoniana
 Reichb.f. 0 0 0 0 4 5
 Calanthe sp. 0 0 0 37 8,4 12
 C. sp. 0 0 0 0 4 12
 Coelogyne sp. 0 0 0 0 5 5
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 2 5,12,13
Passifloraceae
 Adenia heterophylla (Bl.)
 Koordes. 0 0 0 19 5.7 6,8
 A. heterophylla (Bl.) Koordes 0 0 0 0 5,1 1
Poaceae
 Centotheca lappacea Desv. 0 0 0 952 5 6
 Paspalum conjugatum Berg. 0 0 0 373 4 4
Polypodiaceae
 Drynaria sparsisora
 (Desv.) T. Moore 0 0 0 0 5,8 5
 Pityrogramma calomenalos
 Link. 0 0 0 0 4 12
 P. tartarea Link. 0 0 0 2369 4 12
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form(FN5) pact(FN6) K% (FN7)
 Embelia ribes Burn. 8 ND 75
 E. viridiflora (DC.) Scheff. 8 ND 31
 Maesa sp. 8 ND 50
Myrtaceae
 Syzygium sp. 7 ND 16
 Tristania whiteana Griff. 5 ND 31
 T. sp. 6 ND 25
Olacaceae
 Scorodocarpus borneensis
 (Baill.) Becc. 6 D 19
Orchidaceae
 Apostasia wallichii R.Br. 7 ND 13
 Bromheadin finlaysoniana
 Reichb.f. 3 ND 6
 Calanthe sp. 3 D 28
 C. sp. 3 ND 19
 Coelogyne sp. 1 D 22
 unidentified 3 D 34
 Passifloraceae
 Adenia heterophylla (Bl.)
 Koordes. 8 D 81
 A. heterophylla (Bl.) Koordes 8 D 72
Poaceae
 Centotheca lappacea Desv. 3 D 22
 Paspalum conjugatum Berg. 3 ND 84
Polypodiaceae
 Drynaria sparsisora
 (Desv.) T. Moore 1 D 34
 Pityrogramma calomenalos
 Link. 2 ND 22
 P. tartarea Link. 2 ND 41
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular Part
 Taxon name Voucher(FN2) I E-1 E-2 L-1
Proteaceae
 Helicia excelsa (R.Br.) Bl. Kayu karut 199 0 0 0 7
 Heliciopsis artocarpoides
 (Elmer.) Sleumer Tawah 82 0 0 0 15
Rhamnaceae
 Ziziphus crebivinosa CB.
 Roxb. Rangan daun lebar 171 0 0 0 0
 Z. suluensis Merr. Rangap 130 0 0 0 124
Rhizoporaceae
 Anisophyllea disticha (Jack.)
 Baill. Pengkaribu 41 0 0 0 442
 Pelacalyx axillaris Roxb. Kayu udak 173 0 0 0 0
Rosaceae
 Prunus javanica (T. & B.)
 Miq. Pahi 137 0 0 0 0
Rubiaceae
 Hedyotis philippensis Adas kayu 184 1286 1400 427 22
 (Willd.) Merr. ex CB.Rob.
 Lachnastoma densiflora Val. Kopi hutan NS 0 0 0 0
 Myrmecodia sp. Kipang berdarah 14 0 0 0 0
 M. sp. Limau ngambut 127 0 0 0 0
 Myrmeconauclea strigosa
 (Korth.) Merr. Penahan 114 0 0 0 0
 Nauclea subdita (Korth.) Val. Bengkal 93,97 0 0 0 4
 Oldenlandia capitellata Wall. Adas akar 86 0 0 0 0
 O. rigida Miq. Obat panas dingin 34 0 0 0 0
 Psychotria viridiflora Reinv.
 Ex. Bl. Pengkarebang 46 3429 19 500 6100 487
 Rennellia sp. Ginseng 107 0 0 0 0
 Saprosma sp. Kontuk asu 100 0 0 0 16
 unidentified Simpak pinggat 135 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Engkabah 183 0 0 0 0
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used(FN3) Use(FN4)
Proteaceae
 Helicia excelsa (R.Br.) Bl. 0 1 0 0 3 5
 Heliciopsis artocarpoides
 (Elmer.) Sleumer 0 4 0 37 4 5,12
Rhamnaceae
 Ziziphus crebivinosa CB.
 Roxb. 0 0 0 0 4 5
 Z. suluensis Merr. 627 0 0 0 4 5
Rhizoporaceae
 Anisophyllea disticha (Jack.)
 Baill. 437 33 27 280 4 5
 Pelacalyx axillaris Roxb. 0 0 0 0 4 5
Rosaceae
 Prunus javanica (T. & B.)
 Miq. 0 0 0 0 1 2,8
Rubiaceae
 Hedyotis philippensis 0 0 0 616 4 5
 (Willd.) Merr. ex CB.Rob.
 Lachnastoma densiflora Val. 0 0 0 0 4 3
 Myrmecodia sp. 0 1 0 0 5 8
 M. sp. 0 0 0 0 5 12
 Myrmeconauclea strigosa
 (Korth.) Merr. 0 38 0 0 5,4 5,13
 Nauclea subdita (Korth.) Val. 0 0 0 0 4 6
 Oldenlandia capitellata Wall. 0 0 0 0 10 12
 O. rigida Miq. 0 0 0 0 4 5
 Psychotria viridiflora Reinv.
 Ex. Bl. 1 0 0 752 4 3
 Rennellia sp. 0 0 0 0 5 6,13
 Saprosma sp. 0 0 0 112 4 3
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 10
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 5
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form(FN5) pact(FN6) K% (FN7)
Proteaceae
 Helicia excelsa (R.Br.) Bl. 5 ND 22
 Heliciopsis artocarpoides
 (Elmer.) Sleumer 6 ND 53
Rhamnaceae
 Ziziphus crebivinosa CB.
 Roxb. 4 ND 3
 Z. suluensis Merr. 8 ND 28
Rhizoporaceae
 Anisophyllea disticha (Jack.)
 Baill. 7 ND 56
 Pelacalyx axillaris Roxb. 6 ND 78
Rosaceae
 Prunus javanica (T. & B.)
 Miq. 6 ND 31
Rubiaceae
 Hedyotis philippensis 7 ND 38
 (Willd.) Merr. ex CB.Rob.
 Lachnastoma densiflora Val. 4 ND 6
 Myrmecodia sp. 1 D 41
 M. sp. 1 D 56
 Myrmeconauclea strigosa
 (Korth.) Merr. 4 D 78
 Nauclea subdita (Korth.) Val. 5 ND 41
 Oldenlandia capitellate Wall. 8 D 66
 O. rigida Miq. 3 ND 0
 Psychotria viridiflora Reinv.
 Ex. Bl. 7 ND 84
 Rennellia sp. 3 D 56
 Saprosma sp. 7 ND 75
 unidentified 8 ND 9
 unidentified 7 ND 28
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher(FN2) I E-1 E-2 L-1
Rutaceae
 Citrus sp. Limau NS 0 0 0 0
 Lavanga eleutherandra
 Dalz. Seruang berung 56 0 0 0 0
Sapindaceae
 Allophylus cobbe (L.)
 Raeusch. Obat panjang obuk 201 0 0 0 0
Schizaeceae
 Lygodium circinatum
 (Burn.f.) Sw. Tempuruk 48 46286 10400 3055 1542
 L. circinatum (Burn.f.) Sw. Tempurak poruk manuk 132 71 0 0 2
Scrophulariaceae
 Brookea dasyantha Benth. Setomur merah 149 0 0 0 0
 B. tomentosa Benth. Setomur putih 148 0 0 0 0
 Lindernia sp. Kayu menawak 193 0 0 0 0
Selaginellaceae
 Selaginella magnifica Warb. Serabun minyak 30 571 0 0 0
 S. sp. Rabun 101 0 0 745 557
Simaroubaceae
 Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Kebal manuk 17 0 0 0 27
Smilacaceae
 Smilax zeylanica L. Mantal 50 1429 400 291 85
Sterculiaceae
 Scaphium macropodum
 (Miq.) Beumee Payang raung 154 0 0 0 0
 S. macropodum (Miq.)
 Beumee Rajang raung 22 0 0 0 0
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used(FN3) Use(FN4)
Rutaceae
 Citrus sp. 0 0 0 0 3 8
 Lavanga eleutherandra
 Dalz. 0 0 0 0 5 13
Sapindaceae
 Allophylus cobbe (L.)
 Raeusch. 0 0 0 0 4 13
Schizaeceae
 Lygodium circinatum
 (Burn.f.) Sw. 33 3 0 5336 5 8
 L. circinatum (Burn.f.) Sw. 0 0 0 0 4 3
Scrophulariaceae
 Brookea dasyantha Benth. 0 0 0 0 4 9
 B. tomentosa Benth. 0 0 0 0 4 9
 Lindernia sp. 0 0 0 0 5 6
Selaginellaceae
 Selaginella magnifica Warb. 0 1 129 0 4 12
 S. sp. 3 0 0 1418 4 5
Simaroubaceae
 Eurycoma longifolia Jack. 43 13 20 19 5 7,13
Smilacaceae
 Smilax zeylanica L. 43 0 0 429 4 12
Sterculiaceae
 Scaphium macropodum
 (Miq.) Beumee 0 17 75 0 4 8
 S. macropodum (Miq.)
 Beumee 0 0 0 0 5 8
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form(FN5) pact(FN6) K% (FN7)
Rutaceae
 Citrus sp. 6 ND 6
 Lavanga eleutherandra
 Dalz. 8 D 3
Sapindaceae
 Allophylus cobbe (L.)
 Raeusch. 8 ND 0
Schizaeceae
 Lygodium circinatum
 (Burn.f.) Sw. 2 D 6
 L. circinatum (Burn.f.) Sw. 2 ND 9
Scrophulariaceae
 Brookea dasyantha Benth. 3 ND 25
 B. tomentosa Benth. 3 ND 22
 Lindernia sp. 7 D 66
Selaginellaceae
 Selaginella magnifica Warb. 2 ND 9
 S. sp. 3 ND 25
Simaroubaceae
 Eurycoma longifolia Jack. 7 D 56
Smilacaceae
 Smilax zeylanica L. 8 ND 22
Sterculiaceae
 Scaphium macropodum
 (Miq.) Beumee 7 ND 16
 S. macropodum (Miq.)
 Beumee 1 D 6
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher(FN2) I E-1 E-2 L-1
Thelypteridaceae
 Thelypteris sp. Kayu mati 23 0 0 0 0
Tiliaceae
 Grewia sp. Kemunting jawa NS 0 0 0 0
Urticaceae
 Peuzolzia zeylanica (L.)
 Benn. Pondi asu 74 0 0 9 0
Verbenaceae
 Callicarpa longifolia Lam. Timau bonsi 72 0 0 0 4
 Clerodendron buchanani
 (Roxb.) Merr. Kebantah 35 0 0 9 0
 C. laevilfolium Bl. Obat batuk 197 0 0 0 0
 C. sp. Kebantah 12 143 200 0 2
 Geunsia pentandra (Roxb.)
 Merr. Santuk malik 71 143 0 0 0
 Vitex pinnata L. Keleban 128 0 0 0 0
Vitaceae
 Ampelocissus imperialis
 (Miq.) Planch. Tudung kemarau 196 0 0 0 22
 A. winkleri Lautb. Tuba buntak 158 500 0 0 0
 A. winkleri Lautb. Kansikora 19 0 0 9 86
 Cayratia javanica (Thunb.)
 Gagnep. Pengkaruah putih 172 0 0 0 0
 C. javanica (Thunb.) Gagnep. Pengkaruah 124 0 0 0 0
 Tetrastigma lanceolarium
 Planc. Obat luka punan 8 0 0 0 2
 T. cf. laevigatum (Bl.)
 Planch. Pengembang bukut 49 0 0 0 4
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used(FN3) Use(FN4)
Thelypteridaceae
 Thelypteris sp. 0 2 0 0 1 5
Tiliaceae
 Grewia sp. 0 0 0 0 4 5
Urticaceae
 Peuzolzia zeylanica (L.)
 Benn. 0 0 0 0 4 9,12
Verbenaceae
 Callicarpa longifolia Lam. 0 0 0 19 5,4,3 3,5,12,13
 Clerodendron buchanani
 (Roxb.) Merr. 0 0 0 0 4 3
 C. laevilfolium Bl. 0 0 0 0 4 10
 C. sp. 0 18 0 0 4 3
 Geunsia pentandra (Roxb.)
 Merr. 0 0 0 0 4 1,3,9
 Vitex pinnata L. 0 0 0 0 4 3
Vitaceae
 Ampelocissus imperialis
 (Miq.) Planch. 1 0 0 0 4 12
 A. winkleri Lautb. 0 0 0 0 5,4 2
 A. winkleri Lautb. 31 17 64 56 4 6
 Cayratia javanica (Thunb.)
 Gagnep. 0 0 0 0 4 6,10
 C. javanica (Thunb.) Gagnep. 0 0 0 0 4 6,10
 Tetrastigma lanceolarium
 Planc. 0 1 4 0 4 12
 T. cf. laevigatum (Bl.)
 Planch. 0 1 0 373 8 9
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form(FN5) pact(FN6) K% (FN7)
Thelypteridaceae
 Thelypteris sp. 2 ND 3
Tiliaceae
 Grewia sp. 4 ND 50
Urticaceae
 Peuzolzia zeylanica (L.)
 Benn. 7 ND 31
Verbenaceae
 Callicarpa longifolia Lam. 7 D 84
 Clerodendron buchanani
 (Roxb.) Merr. 7 ND 59
 C. laevilfolium Bl. 3 ND 3
 C. sp. 7 ND 59
 Geunsia pentandra (Roxb.)
 Merr. 6 ND 31
 Vitex pinnata L. 6 ND 84
Vitaceae
 Ampelocissus imperialis
 (Miq.) Planch. 8 ND 22
 A. winkleri Lautb. 3 ND 31
 A. winkleri Lautb. 8 D 63
 Cayratia javanica (Thunb.)
 Gagnep. 8 ND 50
 C. javanica (Thunb.) Gagnep. 8 ND 50
 Tetrastigma lanceolarium
 Planc. 8 ND 9
 T. cf. laevigatum (Bl.)
 Planch. 3 D 25
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type[sup1]
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher[sup2] I E-1 E-2 L-1
Zingiberaceae
 Alpinia sp. Asam sengayan 139 71 0 36 196
 Costus speciosus oen.)
 J.E. Smith Tetawar 16 71 0 18 41
 Curcuma domestica Val. Kunyit NS 0 0 0 0
 Hedycium coronarium Koen. Bunga unsuli 91 0 0 0 0
 Hornstedtia sp. Asam tulang 98 143 0 0 0
 H. sp. Asam pokih 38 17071 4500 800 9
 H. sp. Asam empangau 168 214 0 36 0
 Nicolaia speciosa (B1.)
 Horan Asam tekala 57 3000 600 145 4
 Zingiber aromaticum Val. Lempuik 202 0 0 0 0
 Z. sp. Liak putih NS 0 0 0 0
 Z. sp. Liak merah 62 0 0 0 0
 Z. sp. Liak hutan 155 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Lengkuas NS 0 0 0 0
unidentified Entemu NS 0 0 0 0
Unidentified
 unidentified Akar arak NS 0 0 0 59
 unidentified Tobuk bubun NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Kocang NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Cerengak lupa NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Akar marau NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Patah isau NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Tebu NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Sindar NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Empedu tanah NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Kelambu udang NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Kipang merah NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Sampu dapak NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Kipang putih NS 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Kayu tongau 190 0 0 0 0
 unidentified Tuba rungkong 161 0 0 0 0
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type[sup1] Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used[sup3] Use[sup4]
Zingiberaceae
 Alpinia sp. 0 0 0 93 5 various
 Costus speciosus oen.)
 J.E. Smith 0 18 100 112 10 5
 Curcuma domestica Val. 0 0 0 0 5 7,12
 Hedycium coronarium Koen. 0 0 0 0 2 10
 Hornstedtia sp. 0 1 1 0 8 11
 H. sp. 0 0 0 0 8 5
 H. sp. 0 0 0 56 8 10
 Nicolaia speciosa (B1.)
 Horan 0 0 0 19 7,2 12
 Zingiber aromaticum Val. 0 0 0 0 5 3,7,9,10
 Z. sp. 0 0 0 0 5 9
 Z. sp. 0 0 0 0 5 5,9
 Z. sp. 0 0 0 0 5 5
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 5 5
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 5 7
Unidentified
 unidentified 8 0 0 19 4 3,10
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 5 12
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 3
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 12
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 5 8
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 3
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 6
 unidentified 0 1 0 0 8 12
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 12
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 5
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 8
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 5,10
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 8
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 5,4 5
 unidentified 0 0 0 0 1 8
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form[sup5] pact[sup6] K% [sup7]
Zingiberaceae
 Alpinia sp. 3 D 50
 Costus speciosus oen.)
 J.E. Smith 3 D 50
 Curcuma domestica Val. 3 D 3
 Hedycium coronarium Koen. 3 ND 34
 Hornstedtia sp. 3 ND 44
 H. sp. 3 ND 25
 H. sp. 3 ND 38
 Nicolaia speciosa (B1.)
 Horan 3 ND 47
 Zingiber aromaticum Val. 3 D 50
 Z. sp. 3 D 6
 Z. sp. 3 D 81
 Z. sp. 3 D 44
 unidentified 3 D 13
 unidentified 3 D 0
Unidentified
 unidentified 8 D 34
 unidentified 3 ND 13
 unidentified 6 ND 3
 unidentified 4 ND 38
 unidentified 8 ND 44
 unidentified 7 ND 38
 unidentified 3 D 3
 unidentified 6 ND 3
 unidentified 3 ND 69
 unidentified 9 D 69
 unidentified 1 D 59
 unidentified 6 ND 66
 unidentified 1 D 56
 unidentified 8 ND 47
 unidentified 5 ND 16
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Vernacular
 Taxon name Voucher(FN2) I E-1 E-2 L-1
unidentified Leluput 56 0 0 0 0
unidentified Adas ketingan 195 0 0 0 0
unidentified Tikam hantu 9 0 0 0 0
unidentified Sampu bantuk 194 0 0 0 0
unidentified Rajang sandah NS 0 0 0 0
 Number of individuals/ha by forest type(FN1)
 Part
 Taxon L-2 PF LF RB used(FN3) Use(FN4)
unidentified 0 0 0 0 8 4
unidentified 0 0 0 0 8,4 5
unidentified 0 2 0 0 4 10,12
unidentified 0 0 0 0 4 3,10
unidentified 0 0 0 0 5 5
 Har-
 vest-
 ing
 Life im-
 Taxon form(FN5) pact(FN6) K% (FN7)
unidentified 8 ND 56
unidentified 3 NO 22
unidentified 3 D 13
unidentified 6 D 47
unidentified 1 D 3

    Key:

FOOTNOTES
1. Forest types include: I--initial succession (tempalai), E-1--early young secondary forest (Bawas baling), E-2--late young secondary forest (Bawas beliung), L-1--early old secondary forest (Agung kelengkang), L-2--late old secondary forest (Agung tua), PF--Primary forest, LF--Logged forest, RB--River bench forest. Note: some species were not observed in any sample plots (i.e., 0 in all forest types). In these cases site preferences cited in the text are those reported by the medicine man (Udat bin Badung) and confirmed on site through the collection of voucher specimens.
2. Voucher number; NS--no specimen. All voucher specimens deposited in Herbarium Bogoriense, Bogor, Indonesia.
3. Part Used: 1--bark, 2--flower, 3--fruit, 4--leaf, 5--root, 6--sap, 7--seed, 8--stem, 9--spore, 10--whole plant.
4. Medicinal Use: 1--astringent, 2--pesticide, 3--digestive system, 4--eye treatment, 5--headaches and fever, 6--kidney disease, 7--malaria, 8--nervous system, 9--reproductive system, 10--respiratory system, 11--rheumatism, 12--skin ailments, 13--general tonics, 14--toothache, 15--heart disorders, 16--blood circulation.
5. Life Form: 1--epiphyte, 2--fern, 3--herb, 4--shrub, 5--large tree, 6--medium tree, 7--small tree, 8--vine, 9--aquatic plant.
6. Harvesting Impact: D--Destructive, ND--Non-destructive.
7. K: Mean knowledge (%) of medicinal plants by Nanga Juoi villagers (n = 32).